Twelve years later in 1839 came the next big advancement in the photographing industry: Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, a professional scene painter for the theatre, invented the daguerreotype. Daguerre found the new photographic method by experimenting with ways of fixing images taken with the camera obscura. Daguerre replaced pewter plates with silver-plated sheets of copper to produce positive images. In doing so, he discovered that an exposed plate could be developed with the warmed mercury vapor, taking only thirty to sixty minutes’ tops, rather than hours on end. The results were not permanent as the image would darken more when exposed to light, but the effects could be corrected with a table salt solution to remove the unexposed silver iodide. This discovery, a large shift in the painting and drawing field, was just as much questioned as it was admired, much like the digital shift today. People were disappointed with the daguerreotype’s limits, such as lack of color and sharpness, fuzziness over the entire image as well as blurriness of moving objects. However, this did not stop artisans from experimenting in hopes of developing something even more time-efficient and with better end results.
The next major development, called calotype or talbotype, was founded by William Henry Talbot. Through experimentation with daguerreotype, Talbot was able to discover a technique that used silver chloride coated paper, that would create a negative image with the camera obscura. Talbot also discovered that gallic acid could be used to develop the negative image, reducing exposure time down to one minute. The paper image could then be touched up or corrected with sodium hyposulfite. Although this process was much less time consuming, it was still lacking color as well as clarity.