How does Sound travel? Sound is really just a vibration. The source creates a vibration, and the sound travels by bouncing and vibrating off of other molecules. Without a medium, sound can not be heard. Sound travels quickest through solids, like cement and wood, next best through liquids, like water and slowest through gasses, like air. On average, sound travels 1,100 ft. a second. Sound can also bounce off of solids. When this happens, it is called an echo.
Most sound waves are considered longitudinal waves. They move some what like a slinky, the energy moves parallel to the wave itself, and they have 2 main parts. The compression and the rarefraction. The compression is where the molecules are compressed closer together and the rarefraction is where they are more far apart.
To measure the wavelength you just measure the distance between 2 like parts. (Compression/compression, rarefraction/rarefraction)
The frequency of the wave is affected by the pitch of the sound. And the amplitude is affected by the volume. The higher pitch, the higher the frequency. The lower the pitch is, the lower the frequency. The louder the sound, the higher amplitude it has, and the quieter the sound is, the lower the amplitude is.
But how do we hear the sound? Our ears are what allow us to hear, register and remember sound. Humans can hear sounds from 20Hz. to 20,000Hz. Sound waves travel through our ear canal until they reach the eardrums. They vibrate the eardrum and travel to the middle ear bones called ossicles. They then, travel to the the choclea, which is shaped like a snail. Inside he choclea, there are about 18000 tiny tiny hairs that transfer the vibration into electrical signals and send them up to the brain.
The tiny hairs located in the choclea, can break. Once the hair breaks, it dies and con not be grown back. This can cause hearing loss. The hairs can break due to exposure to loud sound. The higher frequency hairs are more fragile and usually break first.