Prior to the Georgian style, Baroque was what was the artistic trend in England from The House of Stuarts. It was dramatic, exaggerated and filled with rising tension, and the Whigs decided that that was not fashionable any longer. With both power over the government and now artistic thought, the Whigs were tired of architectural pieces such as St Paul’s Cathedral which was created by renowned architect, Sir Christopher Wren.
Neoclassicism holds six characteristics very close to heart, those being idealism, harmony, clarity, restraint, universality, and rationalism. Similar to Palladianism, Neoclassicism was started due to the thought that styles such as Baroque were needlessly fancy and elaborate, losing meaning in their structure. To achieve this, architects that followed this style held value for very specific details rather than elaborate ones. Such an example would be simply using straight lines to design rather than arched or curved ones. Neoclassicism also heavily used columns, triangular pediments etc. for their structures.
In an attempt to perhaps keep the seemingly absurdness of Baroque architecture around, the Gothic Revival appeared at around 1747 with Horace Walpole's Strawberry Hill. Gothic architecture typically does not end up being used for the original purpose, instead it remains a feast for the eye with all the small yet extravagant details that it has to offer. The romantic perspectives of the Gothic Revival architects constantly clashed against those of the straight-to-the-point, Neoclassical architects with constant competition between the two.
As remarkably flamboyant places, key characteristics of Gothic Revival/Gothic architecture include intricate tracery, tall towers, pointed arches, and stained glass windows.
Height and light were the main driving forces for this type of style. Often times the interior of the building would be lofty and cavernous with plenty of light streaming in from the windows.
In Relations to the Text
In the book Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, setting plays an immense role in how the characters act and interact with others. Longbourn, Netherfield, Pemberley, and Rosings are all estates belonging to the characters in the book, typically physically reflecting their owners. Longbourn is owned by the Bennet family near a town called Meryton. Due to the fact the Meryton is also in the country, Longbourn can easily be seen or imagined as a house made of red bricks and wooden accents painted white, something that the Georgian era is typically credited to starting. Netherfield is owned by the Bingley family and this, too, would most likely be made in the same fashion as Longbourn is since it is also situated near Meryton.
The last two estates include Rosings and Pemberley, which are each respectively set in Kent and Derbyshire. Rosings is owned by Lady Catherine de Bourgh and it is described by Elizabeth as a "modern building" which could perhaps mean that it was styled after the gothic revival, fitting for the character's dramatics.
Pemberley is owned by the tall, wealthy, and prideful Mr. Darcy and is described by Elizabeth to be "large", "handsome", and not of "any artificial appearance". Although it is not from the Georgian era, Pemberley is commonly thought to be based off of the Chatsworth House, which is also located in Derbyshire. This house was built based off of the Baroque and Italian style. The Chatsworth house history began in the 16th century, but contains many qualities from the 17th and 18th century. In the 1700's, James Paine was commissioned to build the stables and a bridge for the house.