新闻来源：The Associated Press《美联社》；发表时间：June 29, 2020 / 2020年6月29日
翻译：文意 & linda 琳达 /简评：文意；校对：Julia Win & johnwallis；Page：拱卒
China cuts Uighur births with IUDs, abortion, sterilization
Alif Baqytali plays on a tricycle at his home in Shonzhy, Kazakhstan on Saturday, June 13, 2020. Baqytali's mother, Gulnar Omirzakh, a Chinese-born ethnic Kazakh, says she was forced to get an intrauterine contraceptive device, and that authorities threatened to detain her if she didn't pay a large fine for giving birth to Alif, her third child. (AP Photo/Mukhit Toktassyn) 2020年6月13日星期六，阿里夫·巴基塔利在哈萨克斯坦松日的家中骑三轮自行车。巴基塔利的母亲古尔纳尔·奥米扎赫（Gulnar Omirzakh）是华裔哈萨克族人，她说，她被迫使用宫内避孕环，当局威胁说，如果她不支付因为生下她的第三个孩子阿利夫的巨额罚款，就将拘留她。（美联社照片/穆希特·托克塔辛）
The Chinese government is taking draconian measures to slash birth rates among Uighurs and other minorities as part of a sweeping campaign to curb its Muslim population, even as it encourages some of the country’s Han majority to have more children.
While individual women have spoken out before about forced birth control, the practice is far more widespread and systematic than previously known, according to an AP investigation based on government statistics, state documents and interviews with 30 ex-detainees, family members and a former detention camp instructor. The campaign over the past four years in the far west region of Xinjiang is leading to what some experts are calling a form of “demographic genocide.”
FILE - In this Monday, Dec. 3, 2018, file photo, people line up at the Artux City Vocational Skills Education Training Service Center at the Kunshan Industrial Park in Artux in western China's Xinjiang region. The Associated Press has found that the Chinese government is carrying out a birth control program aimed at Uighurs, Kazakhs and other largely Muslim minorities in Xinjiang, even as some of the country's Han majority is encouraged to have more children. The measures include detention in prisons and camps, such as this facility in Artux, as punishment for having too many children. (AP Photo/Ng Han Guan, File) 资料图--在这张2018年12月3日星期一拍摄的档案照片中，人们在中国西部新疆地区阿尔图斯市昆山工业园区的阿尔图斯市职业技能教育培训服务中心排队。美联社发现，中国政府正在针对新疆的维吾尔族、哈萨克族和其他主要是穆斯林的少数民族实施一项节育计划，尽管该国一些汉族多数族裔被鼓励多生孩子。这些措施包括将其关押在监狱和营地，比如阿尔图斯的这个设施，作为对生育过多孩子的惩罚。(AP Photo/Ng Han Guan, File)
The state regularly subjects minority women to pregnancy checks, and forces intrauterine devices, sterilization and even abortion on hundreds of thousands, the interviews and data show. Even while the use of IUDs and sterilization has fallen nationwide, it is rising sharply in Xinjiang.
This Saturday, June 13, 2020 photo shows a January 2018 document telling Gulnar Omirzakh, a Chinese-born ethnic Kazakh, that she must pay a fine of 17,405 RMB ($2685) for having a third child, at her new home in Shonzhy, Kazakhstan. She says she was forced to get an intrauterine contraceptive device, and that Chinese authorities threatened to detain her if she didn't pay the fine for having a third child. (Courtesy Gulnar Omirzakh via AP) 这张2020年6月13日星期六的照片显示，2018年1月的一份文件告诉在中国出生的哈萨克族人古尔纳尔-奥米尔扎克，她必须为生第三胎支付17405元人民币（2685美元）的罚款，她的新家在哈萨克斯坦Shonzhy。她说，她被迫上了宫内避孕器，中国当局威胁说，如果她不支付生第三胎的罚款，就要拘留她。(Courtesy Gulnar Omirzakh via AP)
The population control measures are backed by mass detention both as a threat and as a punishment for failure to comply. Having too many children is a major reason people are sent to detention camps, the AP found, with the parents of three or more ripped away from their families unless they can pay huge fines. Police raid homes, terrifying parents as they search for hidden children.
Gulnar Omirzakh prepares a kettle of tea in her home in Shonzhy, Kazakhstan on Saturday, June 13, 2020. “God bequeaths children on you. To prevent people from having children is wrong,” says Omirzakh of the Chinese government. “They want to destroy us as a people.” (AP Photo/Mukhit Toktassyn) 2020年6月13日星期六，古尔纳尔-奥米尔扎赫在哈萨克斯坦尚志市的家中准备一壶茶。"上帝把孩子遗留在你身上。阻止人们生孩子是错误的。"奥米尔扎赫说，中国政府。"他们想摧毁我们这个民族。" (美联社图片/Mukhit Toktassyn)
Gulnar Omirzakh and Zumret Dawut speak about their run-ins with Xinjiang's birth control campaign.
After Gulnar Omirzakh, a Chinese-born Kazakh, had her third child, the government ordered her to get an IUD inserted. Two years later, in January 2018, four officials in military camouflage came knocking at her door anyway. They gave Omirzakh, the penniless wife of a detained vegetable trader, three days to pay a $2,685 fine for having more than two children.
Gulnar Omirzakh, second right, and her husband, Baqytali Nur, third right, eat lunch with friends and family at their home in Shonzhy, Kazakhstan on Saturday, June 13, 2020. Omirzakh, an ethnic Kazakh, says she was forced to get an intrauterine contraceptive device when living in China, and that authorities threatened to detain her if she didn't pay a large fine for having a third child. (AP Photo/Mukhit Toktassyn) 2020年6月13日星期六，古尔纳尔-奥米尔扎克（右二）和她的丈夫巴基塔利-努尔（右三）在哈萨克斯坦尚志市的家中与朋友和家人共进午餐。哈萨克族人奥米尔扎克说，她在中国生活时被迫上了宫内避孕器，当局威胁说，如果她不支付巨额罚款，就会因生第三胎而被拘留。(美联社图片/Mukhit Toktassyn)
If she didn’t, they warned, she would join her husband and a million other ethnic minorities locked up in internment camps ¬— often for having too many children.
FILE - In this Monday, Dec. 3, 2018, file photo, a guard tower and barbed wire fence surround a detention facility in the Kunshan Industrial Park in Artux in western China's Xinjiang region. The Associated Press has found that the Chinese government is carrying out a birth control program aimed at Uighurs, Kazakhs and other largely Muslim minorities in Xinjiang, even as some of the country's Han majority is encouraged to have more children. The measures include detention in prisons and camps, such as this facility in Artux, as punishment for having too many children. (AP Photo/Ng Han Guan, File) 文件 - 在2018年12月3日星期一的这张文件照片中，中国西部新疆地区阿尔图斯昆山工业园区的一个拘留所周围有一座警卫塔和铁丝网。美联社发现，中国政府正在实施一项针对新疆维吾尔族、哈萨克族和其他主要是穆斯林的少数民族的节育计划，即使该国一些汉族多数族裔被鼓励多生孩子。这些措施包括将其关押在监狱和营地，比如阿尔图斯的这个设施，作为对超生的惩罚。(AP Photo/Ng Han Guan, File)
“God bequeaths children on you. To prevent people from having children is wrong,” said Omirzakh, who tears up even now thinking back to that day. “They want to destroy us as a people.”
In this image from video, Zumret Dawut, a Uighur from China's far western Xinjiang region, holds documents she brought with her, at her new home in Woodbridge, Va., on Monday, June 15, 2020. Dawut says in China, she was forcibly sterilized for having a third child after being released from a Xinjiang detention camp. (AP Photo/Nathan Ellgren) 在这张来自视频的图片中，2020年6月15日星期一，来自中国最西部新疆地区的维吾尔族人祖姆雷特-达乌特（Zumret Dawut）拿着她带来的文件，在她位于弗吉尼亚州木桥的新家。达乌特说，在中国，她从新疆拘留营获释后，因生了第三个孩子而被强行绝育。(美联社图片/Nathan Ellgren)
The result of the birth control campaign is a climate of terror around having children, as seen in interview after interview. Birth rates in the mostly Uighur regions of Hotan and Kashgar plunged by more than 60% from 2015 to 2018, the latest year available in government statistics. Across the Xinjiang region, birth rates continue to plummet, falling nearly 24% last year alone — compared to just 4.2% nationwide, statistics show.
The hundreds of millions of dollars the government pours into birth control has transformed Xinjiang from one of China’s fastest-growing regions to among its slowest in just a few years, according to new research obtained by The Associated Press in advance of publication by China scholar Adrian Zenz.
据美联社(Associated Press)在中共国问题学者阿德里安·赞兹(Adrian Zenz)发表的一项新研究显示，政府投入数亿美元用于控制生育，使新疆在短短几年内从中共国增长最快的地区之一变成了速度最慢的地区之一。
“This kind of drop is unprecedented....there’s a ruthlessness to it,” said Zenz, a leading expert in the policing of China’s minority regions. “This is part of a wider control campaign to subjugate the Uighurs.”
U.S. Secretary of State Michael Pompeo denounced the policies in a statement Monday.
“We call on the Chinese Communist Party to immediately end these horrific practices,” he said.
China’s foreign minister derided the story as “fabricated” and “fake news,” saying the government treats all ethnicities equally and protects the legal rights of minorities.
This Monday, June 15, 2020 photo shows the receipt for a fine levied on Zumret Dawut, a Uighur woman from China's far western Xinjiang region, for having too many children. Dawut, who now lives in Woodbridge, Va., says she was fined 18,400 RMB ($2,600) for having a third child and forcibly sterilized after being released from a Xinjiang detention camp. (Courtesy Zumret Dawut via AP) 这张2020年6月15日星期一的照片显示，来自中国遥远西部新疆地区的维吾尔族妇女祖姆雷特-达乌特（Zumret Dawut）因生育过多孩子而被处以罚款的收据。现居美国维州伍布里奇市的达乌特说，她从新疆拘留营获释后，因生育第三个孩子被罚款18400元人民币（2600美元），并被强制绝育。(Zumret Dawut通过美联社提供)
“Everyone, regardless of whether they’re an ethnic minority or Han Chinese, must follow and act in accordance with the law,” ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian said Monday when asked about the AP story.
Chinese officials have said in the past that the new measures are merely meant to be fair, allowing both Han Chinese and ethnic minorities the same number of children.
In this image from video, Zumret Dawut, a Uighur woman from China's far western Xinjiang region, holds a phone with a picture of her kids at her home in Woodbridge, Va., on Monday, June 15, 2020. She says in China, a doctor tied her fallopian tubes. After waking from the anesthesia, she felt her womb ache, as though it was missing something. “I was so angry. I wanted another son,” she said. (AP Photo/Nathan Ellgren) 在这张来自视频的图片中，2020年6月15日星期一，来自中国遥远的西部新疆地区的维吾尔族妇女祖姆雷特-达乌特（Zumret Dawut）在维州伍德布里奇（Woodbridge）的家中拿着一部手机，上面有她孩子的照片。她说，在中国，医生给她扎了输卵管。从麻醉中醒来后，她觉得自己的子宫很痛，好像少了点什么。"我当时很生气。我想再要一个儿子。"她说。(AP Photo/Nathan Ellgren)
For decades, China had one of the most extensive systems of minority entitlements in the world, with Uighurs and others getting more points on college entrance exams, hiring quotas for government posts and laxer birth control restrictions. Under China’s now-abandoned ‘one child’ policy, the authorities had long encouraged, often forced, contraceptives, sterilization and abortion on Han Chinese. But minorities were allowed two children — three if they came from the countryside.
FILE - In this Aug. 30, 2018 file photo, Uighur children play outdoors in Hotan, in western China's Xinjiang region. The Associated Press has found that the Chinese government is carrying out a birth control program aimed at Uighurs, Kazakhs and other largely Muslim minorities in Xinjiang, even as some of the country's Han majority is encouraged to have more children. (AP Photo/Ng Han Guan) 文件 - 在这张2018年8月30日的文件照片中，维吾尔族儿童在中国西部新疆地区的和田进行户外游戏。美联社发现，中国政府正在实施一项针对新疆维吾尔族、哈萨克族和其他主要是穆斯林的少数民族的节育计划，即使该国一些汉族多数人被鼓励多生孩子。(AP Photo/Ng Han Guan)
Under President Xi Jinping, China’s most authoritarian leader in decades, those benefits are now being rolled back. In 2014, soon after Xi visited Xinjiang, the region’s top official said it was time to implement “equal family planning policies” for all ethnicities and “reduce and stabilize birth rates.” In the following years, the government declared that instead of just one child, Han Chinese could now have two, and three in Xinjiang’s rural areas, just like minorities.
But while equal on paper, in practice Han Chinese are largely spared the abortions, sterilizations, IUD insertions and detentions for having too many children that are forced on Xinjiang’s other ethnicities, interviews and data show. Some rural Muslims, like Omirzakh, are punished even for having the three children allowed by the law.
FILE - In this Sept. 20, 2018 file photo, a Uighur woman and children sit on a motor-tricycle after school at the Unity New Village in Hotan, in western China's Xinjiang region. Birth rates in the mostly Uighur regions of Hotan and Kashgar have plunged by more than 60% since 2015, government statistics show. (AP Photo/Andy Wong) 资料图--在这张2018年9月20日的档案照片中，在中国西部新疆地区的和田团结新村，一名维吾尔族妇女和孩子放学后坐在一辆电动三轮车上。政府统计数据显示，自2015年以来，和田和喀什这两个以维吾尔族为主的地区的出生率大幅下降了60%以上。(AP Photo/Andy Wong)
State-backed scholars have warned for years that large rural religious families were at the root of bombings, knifings and other attacks the Xinjiang government blamed on Islamic terrorists. The growing Muslim population was a breeding ground for poverty and extremism which could “heighten political risk,” according to a 2017 paper by the head of the Institute of Sociology at the Xinjiang Academy of Social Sciences. Another cited as a key obstacle the religious belief that “the fetus is a gift from God.”
Outside experts say the birth control campaign is part of a state-orchestrated assault on the Uighurs to purge them of their faith and identity and forcibly assimilate them. They’re subjected to political and religious re-education in camps and forced labor in factories, while their children are indoctrinated in orphanages. Uighurs, who are often but not always Muslim, are also tracked by a vast digital surveillance apparatus.
FILE - In this Sept. 20, 2018 photo, a Uighur child plays alone in the courtyard of a home at the Unity New Village in Hotan, in western China's Xinjiang region. The hundreds of millions of dollars the government pours into birth control have transformed Xinjiang from one of China’s fastest-growing regions into one of its slowest in just a few years, according to new research obtained by The Associated Press in advance of publication by China scholar Adrian Zenz. (AP Photo/Andy Wong) 资料图--在这张2018年9月20日的照片中，一名维吾尔族儿童在中国西部新疆地区和田团结新村一户人家的院子里独自玩耍。根据美联社在中国学者阿德里安-曾兹（Adrian Zenz）发表前获得的新研究报告，政府投入的数亿计生资金在短短几年内就将新疆从中国发展最快的地区之一变成了发展最慢的地区之一。(AP Photo/Andy Wong)
“The intention may not be to fully eliminate the Uighur population, but it will sharply diminish their vitality,” said Darren Byler, an expert on Uighurs at the University of Colorado. “It will make them easier to assimilate into the mainstream Chinese population.”
科罗拉多大学（University of Colorado）维吾尔问题专家达伦•比勒（Darren Byler）表示："其意图可能不是要完全消灭维吾尔族人口，但会大大削弱他们的活力。"这将使他们更容易融入中共国主流人口。
Some go a step further
“It’s genocide, full stop. It’s not immediate, shocking, mass-killing on the spot type genocide, but it’s slow, painful, creeping genocide,” said Joanne Smith Finley, who works at Newcastle University in the U.K. “These are direct means of genetically reducing the Uighur population.”
"这是种族灭绝，完全毁掉维吾尔族。这不是立即的、令人震惊的、当场的大规模屠杀类型种族灭绝，但它是缓慢、痛苦、一点一点的种族灭绝，"乔安妮史密斯芬利（Joanne Smith Finley）说，他工作于英国纽卡斯尔大学（Newcastle University）。"这些都是直接手段，基因上减少维吾尔族人口。
For centuries, the majority was Muslim in the arid, landlocked region China now calls “Xinjiang” — meaning “New Frontier” in Mandarin.
After the People’s Liberation Army swept through in 1949, China’s new Communist rulers ordered thousands of soldiers to settle in Xinjiang, pushing the Han population from 6.7% that year to more than 40% by 1980. The move sowed anxiety about Chinese migration that persists to this day. Drastic efforts to restrict birth rates in the 1990s were relaxed after major pushback, with many parents paying bribes or registering children as the offspring of friends or other family members.
That all changed with an unprecedented crackdown starting in 2017, throwing hundreds of thousands of people into prisons and camps for alleged “signs of religious extremism” such as traveling abroad, praying or using foreign social media. Authorities launched what several notices called “dragnet-style” investigations to root out parents with too many children, even those who gave birth decades ago.
“Leave no blind spots,” said two county and township directives in 2018 and 2019 uncovered by Zenz, who is also an independent contractor with the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, a bipartisan nonprofit based in Washington, D.C. “Contain illegal births and lower fertility levels,” said a third.
曾兹在2018年和2019年发现了两个县和乡镇的指令“不要有盲点”，曾兹是共产主义受害者纪念基金会（Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation）的独立合作人，该基金会是一个两党性非盈利组织，总部设在华盛顿特区，"遏制非法生育和降低生育率，"第三方说。
Officials and armed police began pounding on doors, looking for kids and pregnant women. Minority residents were ordered to attend weekly flag-raising ceremonies, where officials threatened detention if they didn’t register all their children, according to interviews backed by attendance slips and booklets. Notices found by the AP show that local governments set up or expanded systems to reward those who report illegal births.
In some areas, women were ordered to take gynecology exams after the ceremonies, they said. In others, officials outfitted special rooms with ultrasound scanners for pregnancy tests.
“Test all who need to be tested,” ordered a township directive from 2018. “Detect and deal with those who violate policies early.”
Abdushukur Umar was among the first to fall victim to the crackdown on children. A jovial Uighur tractor driver-turned-fruit merchant, the proud father considered his seven children a blessing from God.
But authorities began pursuing him in 2016. The following year, he was thrown into a camp and later sentenced to seven years in prison — one for each child, authorities told relatives.
“My cousin spent all his time taking care of his family, he never took part in any political movements,” Zuhra Sultan, Umar’s cousin, said from exile in Turkey. “How can you get seven years in prison for having too many children? We’re living in the 21st century — this is unimaginable.”
Sixteen Uighurs and Kazakhs told the AP they knew people interned or jailed for having too many children. Many received years, even decades in prison.
Leaked data obtained and corroborated by the AP showed that of 484 camp detainees listed in Karakax county in Xinjiang, 149 were there for having too many children - the most common reason for holding them. Time in a camp — what the government calls “education and training” — for parents with too many children is written policy in at least three counties, notices found by Zenz confirmed.
In 2017, the Xinjiang government also tripled the already hefty fines for violating family planning laws for even the poorest residents — to at least three times the annual disposable income of the county. While fines also apply to Han Chinese, only minorities are sent to the detention camps if they cannot pay, according to interviews and data. Government reports show the counties collect millions of dollars from the fines each year.
Gulnar Omirzakh's fine for 17,405 RMB, or $2865, for having a third child.
In other efforts to change the population balance of Xinjiang, China is dangling land, jobs and economic subsidies to lure Han migrants there. It is also aggressively promoting intermarriage between Han Chinese and Uighurs, with one couple telling the AP they were given money for housing and amenities like a washing machine, refrigerator and TV.
“It links back to China’s long history of dabbling in eugenics….you don’t want people who are poorly educated, marginal minorities breeding quickly,” said James Leibold, a specialist in Chinese ethnic policy at La Trobe in Melbourne. “What you want is your educated Han to increase their birth rate.”
墨尔本拉特罗贝（La Trobe）的华裔政策专家詹姆斯莱博尔德（James Leibold）表示："这与中共国长期涉足优生学的历史有关......你不想要没受过教育的，边缘化的少数民族快速繁衍"， "你希望的是受过很好教育的汉族提高出生率”。
Sultan describes how the policy looks to Uighurs like her: “The Chinese government wants to control the Uighur population and make us fewer and fewer, until we disappear.”
Once in the detention camps, women are subjected to forced IUDs and what appear to be pregnancy prevention shots, according to former detainees. They are also made to attend lectures on how many children they should have.
Seven former detainees told the AP that they were force-fed birth control pills or injected with fluids, often with no explanation. Many felt dizzy, tired or ill, and women stopped getting their periods. After being released and leaving China, some went to get medical check-ups and found they were sterile.
It’s unclear what former detainees were injected with, but Xinjiang hospital slides obtained by the AP show that pregnancy prevention injections, sometimes with the hormonal medication Depo-Provera, are a common family planning measure. Side effects can include headaches and dizziness.
Dina Nurdybay, a Kazakh woman, was detained in a camp which separated married and unmarried women. The married women were given pregnancy tests, Nurdybay recalled, and forced to have IUDs installed if they had children. She was spared because she was unmarried and childless.
One day in February 2018, one of her cellmates, a Uighur woman, had to give a speech confessing what guards called her “crimes.” When a visiting official peered through the iron bars of their cell, she recited her lines in halting Mandarin.
“I gave birth to too many children,” she said. “It shows I’m uneducated and know little about the law.”
“Do you think it’s fair that Han people are only allowed to have one child?” the official asked, according to Nurdybay. “You ethnic minorities are shameless, wild and uncivilized.”
Nurdybay met at least two others in the camps whom she learned were locked up for having too many children. Later, she was transferred to another facility with an orphanage that housed hundreds of children, including those with parents detained for giving birth too many times. The children counted the days until they could see their parents on rare visits.
“They told me they wanted to hug their parents, but they were not allowed,” she said. “They always looked very sad.”
One of Xinjiang's internment camps in Artux, China. 新疆阿图克斯的拘留营之一。
Alif Baqytali hugs his mother, Gulnar Omirzakh, at their new home in Shonzhy, Kazakhstan. Omirzakh, a Chinese-born ethnic Kazakh, says she was forced to get an intrauterine contraceptive device, and that authorities in China threatened to detain her if she didn't pay a large fine for giving birth to Alif, her third child. (AP Photo/Mukhit Toktassyn) Alif Baqytali在哈萨克斯坦Shonzhy的新家拥抱他的母亲Gulnar Omirzakh。出生在中国的哈萨克族人奥米尔扎克说，她被迫上了宫内避孕器，中国当局威胁说，如果她不支付巨额罚款，就会拘留她，因为她生下了她的第三个孩子阿力夫。(美联社图片/Mukhit Toktassyn)
Another former detainee, Tursunay Ziyawudun, said she was injected until she stopped having her period, and kicked repeatedly in the lower stomach during interrogations. She now can’t have children and often doubles over in pain, bleeding from her womb, she said.
Ziyawudun and the 40 other women in her “class” were forced to attend family planning lectures most Wednesdays, where films were screened about impoverished women struggling to feed many children. Married women were rewarded for good behavior with conjugal visits from their husbands, along with showers, towels, and two hours in a bedroom. But there was a catch – they had to take birth control pills beforehand.
Some women have even reported forced abortions. Ziyawudun said a “teacher” at her camp told women they would face abortions if found pregnant during gynecology exams.
A woman in another class turned out to be pregnant and disappeared from the camp, she said. She added that two of her cousins who were pregnant got rid of their children on their own because they were so afraid.
Another woman, Gulbahar Jelilova, confirmed that detainees in her camp were forced to abort their children. She also saw a new mother, still leaking breast milk, who did not know what had happened to her infant. And she met doctors and medical students who were detained for helping Uighurs dodge the system and give birth at home.
In December 2017, on a visit from Kazakhstan back to China, Gulzia Mogdin was taken to a hospital after police found WhatsApp on her phone. A urine sample revealed she was two months pregnant with her third child. Officials told Mogdin she needed to get an abortion and threatened to detain her brother if she didn’t.
2017年12月，在从哈萨克斯坦返回中国访问时，古尔齐亚·莫格丁（Gulzia Mogdin）被送往医院，因为警方在她的手机上发现了 WhatsApp。尿样显示她怀了第三个孩子两个月。官员告诉莫格丁，她需要堕胎，并威胁说，如果她不堕胎，就拘留她的弟弟。
During the procedure, medics inserted an electric vacuum into her womb and sucked her fetus out of her body. She was taken home and told to rest, as they planned to take her to a camp.
Months later, Mogdin made it back to Kazakhstan, where her husband lives.
“That baby was going to be the only baby we had together,” said Mogdin, who had recently remarried. “I cannot sleep. It’s terribly unfair.”
FILE - In this Sept. 20, 2018 file photo, a mural depicting Uighur and Han Chinese men and women carrying the national flag of China, decorates the wall of a home at the Unity New Village in Hotan, in western China's Xinjiang region. Outside experts say the government's birth control campaign for Muslim minorities is part of a broader effort to forcibly assimilate the Uighur and Kazakh populations and rewire their culture, language and identity. (AP Photo/Andy Wong) 资料图--在这张2018年9月20日的档案照片中，一幅描绘维吾尔族和汉族男女手持中国国旗的壁画，装饰在中国西部新疆地区和田团结新村一户人家的墙上。外界专家说，政府为穆斯林少数民族开展的计生运动是强行同化维吾尔族和哈萨克族人口，并对他们的文化、语言和身份进行重新定位的更广泛努力的一部分。(美联社图片/黄安迪)
The success of China’s push to control births among Muslim minorities shows up in the numbers for IUDs and sterilization.
In 2014, just over 200,000 IUDs were inserted in Xinjiang. By 2018, that jumped more than 60 percent to nearly 330,000 IUDs. At the same time, IUD use tumbled elsewhere in China, as many women began getting the devices removed.
A former teacher drafted to work as an instructor at a detention camp described her experience with IUDs to the AP.
She said it started with flag-raising assemblies at her compound in the beginning of 2017, where officials made Uighur residents recite “anti-terror” lessons. They chanted, “If we have too many children, we’re religious extremists....That means we have to go to the training centers.”
Police rounded up over 180 parents with too many children until “not a single one was left,” she said. At night, she said, she lay in bed, stiff with terror, as officers with guns and tasers hauled her neighbors away. From time to time police pounded on her door and searched her apartment for Qurans, knives, prayer mats and of course children, she said.
她说，警方围捕了180多名有太多孩子的父母，没有一个剩下。 她说，到了晚上，她躺在床上，恐惧四射，警察拿着枪和泰瑟枪把邻居拖走了。 她说，警察时不时敲打她的门，在她的公寓里搜查古兰经、刀子、祈祷垫，当然还有孩子。
“Your heart would leap out of your chest,” she said.
Then, that August, officials in the teacher’s compound were told to install IUDs on all women of childbearing age. She protested, saying she was nearly 50 with just one child and no plans to have more. Officials threatened to drag her to a police station and strap her to an iron chair for interrogation.
然后，那个八月，教师大院的官员被要求在所有育龄妇女身上安装节育环。 她抗议说，她已经快50岁了，只有一个孩子，没有计划再生育更多孩子。 官员威胁要把她拖到派出所，并绑在铁椅上进行讯问。
She was forced into a bus with four armed officers and taken to a hospital where hundreds of Uighur women lined up in silence, waiting for IUDs to be inserted. Some wept quietly, but nobody dared say a word because of the surveillance cameras hanging overhead.
Her IUD was designed to be irremovable without special instruments. The first 15 days, she got headaches and nonstop menstrual bleeding.
“I couldn’t eat properly, I couldn’t sleep properly. It gave me huge psychological pressure,” she said. “Only Uighurs had to wear it.”
“我无法正常饮食，无法正常睡眠。 这给了我巨大的心理压力，”她说。 “只有维吾尔族才需要戴它。”
Chinese health statistics also show a sterilization boom in Xinjiang.
Budget documents obtained by Zenz show that starting in 2016, the Xinjiang government began pumping tens of millions of dollars into a birth control surgery program and cash incentives for women to get sterilized. While sterilization rates plunged in the rest of the country, they surged seven-fold in Xinjiang from 2016 to 2018, to more than 60,000 procedures. The Uighur-majority city of Hotan budgeted for 14,872 sterilizations in 2019 — over 34% of all married women of childbearing age, Zenz found.
曾兹（Zenz）获得的预算文件显示，从2016年开始，新疆政府就开始投入数千万美元用于节育手术计划和现金奖励措施，以鼓励女性接受绝育手术。 尽管全国其他地区的绝育率暴跌，但从2016年到2018年，新疆的绝育率猛增了7倍，超过了60,000例。 曾兹发现，在维吾尔族占多数的城市和田市，2019年预算进行了14872次绝育手术，占所有已婚育龄妇女的34％以上。
Even within Xinjiang, policies vary widely, being harsher in the heavily Uighur south than the Han-majority north. In Shihezi, a Han-dominated city where Uighurs make up less than 2% of the population, the government subsidizes baby formula and hospital birth services to encourage more children, state media reported.
Zumret Dawut got no such benefits. In 2018, the mother of three was locked in a camp for two months for having an American visa.
祖姆雷特·道特（Zumret Dawut）没有得到任何好处。 2018年，三个孩子的母亲因持有美国签证而被关在营地两个月。
When she returned home under house arrest, officials forced her to get gynecology exams every month, along with all other Uighur women in her compound. Han women were exempted. They warned that if she didn’t take what they called “free examinations”, she could end up back in the camp.
当她回家时被软禁在家，官员们强迫她每月与她住所中的所有其他维吾尔族妇女一起接受妇科检查。 汉族妇女获豁免。 他们警告说，如果她不参加所谓的“免费检查”，她可能会回到集中营。
One day, they turned up with a list of at least 200 Uighur women in her compound with more than two children who had to get sterilized, Dawut recalled.
“My Han Chinese neighbors, they sympathized with us Uighurs,” Dawut said. “They told me, ‘oh, you’re suffering terribly, the government is going way too far!’”
Dawut protested, but police again threatened to send her back to the camp. During the sterilization procedure, Han Chinese doctors injected her with anesthesia and tied her fallopian tubes — a permanent operation. When Dawut came to, she felt her womb ache.
道特提出抗议，但警方再次威胁要把她送回集中营。 在绝育过程中，汉族医生给她注射了麻醉药，并绑住了她的输卵管，这是一个永久性的手术。 当道特醒来时，她感到子宫疼痛。
“I was so angry,” she said. “I wanted another son.”
Looking back, Omirzakh considers herself lucky.
After that frigid day when officials threatened to lock her up, Omirzakh called relatives around the clock. Hours before the deadline, she scraped together enough money to pay the fine from the sale of her sister’s cow and high-interest loans, leaving her deep in debt.
For the next year, Omirzakh attended classes with the wives of others detained for having too many children. She and her children lived with two local party officials sent specially to spy on them. When her husband was finally released, they fled for Kazakhstan with just a few bundles of blankets and clothes.
第二年，奥米尔扎赫（Omirzakh）与其他因生过多孩子而被关押的妻子们一起上课。 她和她的孩子与特派监视他们的两名地方党员住在一起。 当她的丈夫终于被释放时，他们带着几捆毯子和衣服逃往哈萨克斯坦。
The IUD still in Omirzakh’s womb has now sunk into her flesh, causing inflammation and piercing back pain, “like being stabbed with a knife.” For Omirzakh, it’s a bitter reminder of everything she’s lost — and the plight of those she left behind.
“People there are now terrified of giving birth,” she said. “When I think of the word ‘Xinjiang,’ I can still feel that fear.”
编辑：【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by：【Himalaya Hawk Squad】