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中共用非人道手段强迫新疆人节育 【中英对照翻译】

新闻来源:The Associated Press《美联社》;发表时间:June 29, 2020 / 2020年6月29日

翻译:文意 & linda 琳达 /简评:文意;校对:Julia Win & johnwallis;Page:拱卒

简评:

孩子是上帝给我们人类的礼物,让人类繁衍和延续。生育是一个自然规律,不应该受到人工干预。只有在中共的无人性冷血统治下,生育才会变成残酷的选择和谋杀。 使多少家庭蒙冤被捕,使多少孩子失去了父母亲人。中共国少数民命运的凄惨,正在引起国际社会的重视,希望能尽早打开在他们身上的枷锁,赢得自由、享受自由!

原文:

China cuts Uighur births with IUDs, abortion, sterilization

中共国用宫内节育器、堕胎、绝育等方法减少维吾尔族生育

简评:孩子是上帝给我们人类的礼物,让人类繁衍和延续。生育是一个自然规律,不应该受到人工干预。只有在中共这种没有人性的国家,生育才会变成残酷的选择和谋杀。 使多少家庭蒙冤被捕,使多少孩子失去了父母亲人。中共国少数民命运的凄惨,正在引起国际社会的重视,希望能尽早打开在他们身上的枷锁,赢得自由、享受自由!

Alif Baqytali plays on a tricycle at his home in Shonzhy, Kazakhstan on Saturday, June 13, 2020. Baqytali's mother, Gulnar Omirzakh, a Chinese-born ethnic Kazakh, says she was forced to get an intrauterine contraceptive device, and that authorities threatened to detain her if she didn't pay a large fine for giving birth to Alif, her third child. (AP Photo/Mukhit Toktassyn) 2020年6月13日星期六,阿里夫·巴基塔利在哈萨克斯坦松日的家中骑三轮自行车。巴基塔利的母亲古尔纳尔·奥米扎赫(Gulnar Omirzakh)是华裔哈萨克族人,她说,她被迫使用宫内避孕环,当局威胁说,如果她不支付因为生下她的第三个孩子阿利夫的巨额罚款,就将拘留她。(美联社照片/穆希特·托克塔辛)

The Chinese government is taking draconian measures to slash birth rates among Uighurs and other minorities as part of a sweeping campaign to curb its Muslim population, even as it encourages some of the country’s Han majority to have more children.

中共国政府正在采取严厉措施,大幅降低维吾尔族和其他少数民族的出生率,作为遏制穆斯林人口的大规模行动的一部分,同时鼓励在中共国占多数的汉族人生育更多的孩子。

While individual women have spoken out before about forced birth control, the practice is far more widespread and systematic than previously known, according to an AP investigation based on government statistics, state documents and interviews with 30 ex-detainees, family members and a former detention camp instructor. The campaign over the past four years in the far west region of Xinjiang is leading to what some experts are calling a form of “demographic genocide.”

根据美联社对政府统计数据的调查、中共国家文件记录以及对30名以前被拘留者、家庭成员和一名前拘留营教官的采访、调查显示,虽然以前曾有个别女性公开谈论过强制节育,但这种做法远比我们所知的更为广泛和系统。过去四年在新疆最西部的这场节育运动使得一些专家称之为“人口灭绝”运动。

FILE - In this Monday, Dec. 3, 2018, file photo, people line up at the Artux City Vocational Skills Education Training Service Center at the Kunshan Industrial Park in Artux in western China's Xinjiang region. The Associated Press has found that the Chinese government is carrying out a birth control program aimed at Uighurs, Kazakhs and other largely Muslim minorities in Xinjiang, even as some of the country's Han majority is encouraged to have more children. The measures include detention in prisons and camps, such as this facility in Artux, as punishment for having too many children. (AP Photo/Ng Han Guan, File) 资料图--在这张2018年12月3日星期一拍摄的档案照片中,人们在中国西部新疆地区阿尔图斯市昆山工业园区的阿尔图斯市职业技能教育培训服务中心排队。美联社发现,中国政府正在针对新疆的维吾尔族、哈萨克族和其他主要是穆斯林的少数民族实施一项节育计划,尽管该国一些汉族多数族裔被鼓励多生孩子。这些措施包括将其关押在监狱和营地,比如阿尔图斯的这个设施,作为对生育过多孩子的惩罚。(AP Photo/Ng Han Guan, File)

The state regularly subjects minority women to pregnancy checks, and forces intrauterine devices, sterilization and even abortion on hundreds of thousands, the interviews and data show. Even while the use of IUDs and sterilization has fallen nationwide, it is rising sharply in Xinjiang.

采访和数据显示,该州定期对少数民族妇女进行怀孕检查,强制实施宫内节育器、绝育甚至堕胎的有数十万人。尽管宫内节育器和绝育手术的使用在全国范围内有所下降,但在新疆却在急剧上升。

This Saturday, June 13, 2020 photo shows a January 2018 document telling Gulnar Omirzakh, a Chinese-born ethnic Kazakh, that she must pay a fine of 17,405 RMB ($2685) for having a third child, at her new home in Shonzhy, Kazakhstan. She says she was forced to get an intrauterine contraceptive device, and that Chinese authorities threatened to detain her if she didn't pay the fine for having a third child. (Courtesy Gulnar Omirzakh via AP) 这张2020年6月13日星期六的照片显示,2018年1月的一份文件告诉在中国出生的哈萨克族人古尔纳尔-奥米尔扎克,她必须为生第三胎支付17405元人民币(2685美元)的罚款,她的新家在哈萨克斯坦Shonzhy。她说,她被迫上了宫内避孕器,中国当局威胁说,如果她不支付生第三胎的罚款,就要拘留她。(Courtesy Gulnar Omirzakh via AP)

The population control measures are backed by mass detention both as a threat and as a punishment for failure to comply. Having too many children is a major reason people are sent to detention camps, the AP found, with the parents of three or more ripped away from their families unless they can pay huge fines. Police raid homes, terrifying parents as they search for hidden children.

人口控制措施的背后是大规模拘留,既作为一种威胁,也作为对不遵守节育规定的惩罚。美联社发现,孩子太多是人们被送进拘留营的主要原因,除非他们能支付巨额罚款,否则三个或更多孩子的父母会被从他们家里带走。警察突袭住宅,恐吓父母,他们会寻找隐藏起来的孩子们。

Gulnar Omirzakh prepares a kettle of tea in her home in Shonzhy, Kazakhstan on Saturday, June 13, 2020. “God bequeaths children on you. To prevent people from having children is wrong,” says Omirzakh of the Chinese government. “They want to destroy us as a people.” (AP Photo/Mukhit Toktassyn) 2020年6月13日星期六,古尔纳尔-奥米尔扎赫在哈萨克斯坦尚志市的家中准备一壶茶。"上帝把孩子遗留在你身上。阻止人们生孩子是错误的。"奥米尔扎赫说,中国政府。"他们想摧毁我们这个民族。" (美联社图片/Mukhit Toktassyn)

Gulnar Omirzakh and Zumret Dawut speak about their run-ins with Xinjiang's birth control campaign.

古尔纳尔·奥米扎赫和祖姆雷特·达乌特谈到了她们在新疆节育运动中的一次冲突。

After Gulnar Omirzakh, a Chinese-born Kazakh, had her third child, the government ordered her to get an IUD inserted. Two years later, in January 2018, four officials in military camouflage came knocking at her door anyway. They gave Omirzakh, the penniless wife of a detained vegetable trader, three days to pay a $2,685 fine for having more than two children.

在中共国出生的哈萨克人古尔纳尔·奥米扎赫生下第三个孩子后,政府命令她进行宫内节育器植入。两年后,即2018年1月,四名身穿军事迷彩服的官员还是来敲她的门了。他们给了被拘留的蔬菜商人身无分文的妻子奥米扎赫三天时间,让她支付2,685美元的罚款,因为她有两个以上的孩子。

Gulnar Omirzakh, second right, and her husband, Baqytali Nur, third right, eat lunch with friends and family at their home in Shonzhy, Kazakhstan on Saturday, June 13, 2020. Omirzakh, an ethnic Kazakh, says she was forced to get an intrauterine contraceptive device when living in China, and that authorities threatened to detain her if she didn't pay a large fine for having a third child. (AP Photo/Mukhit Toktassyn) 2020年6月13日星期六,古尔纳尔-奥米尔扎克(右二)和她的丈夫巴基塔利-努尔(右三)在哈萨克斯坦尚志市的家中与朋友和家人共进午餐。哈萨克族人奥米尔扎克说,她在中国生活时被迫上了宫内避孕器,当局威胁说,如果她不支付巨额罚款,就会因生第三胎而被拘留。(美联社图片/Mukhit Toktassyn)

If she didn’t, they warned, she would join her husband and a million other ethnic minorities locked up in internment camps ¬— often for having too many children.

他们警告说,如果她不这样做,她将和她的丈夫一起与已被拘留的一百多万少数民族人士关在一起——这通常是因为孩子太多。

FILE - In this Monday, Dec. 3, 2018, file photo, a guard tower and barbed wire fence surround a detention facility in the Kunshan Industrial Park in Artux in western China's Xinjiang region. The Associated Press has found that the Chinese government is carrying out a birth control program aimed at Uighurs, Kazakhs and other largely Muslim minorities in Xinjiang, even as some of the country's Han majority is encouraged to have more children. The measures include detention in prisons and camps, such as this facility in Artux, as punishment for having too many children. (AP Photo/Ng Han Guan, File) 文件 - 在2018年12月3日星期一的这张文件照片中,中国西部新疆地区阿尔图斯昆山工业园区的一个拘留所周围有一座警卫塔和铁丝网。美联社发现,中国政府正在实施一项针对新疆维吾尔族、哈萨克族和其他主要是穆斯林的少数民族的节育计划,即使该国一些汉族多数族裔被鼓励多生孩子。这些措施包括将其关押在监狱和营地,比如阿尔图斯的这个设施,作为对超生的惩罚。(AP Photo/Ng Han Guan, File)

“God bequeaths children on you. To prevent people from having children is wrong,” said Omirzakh, who tears up even now thinking back to that day. “They want to destroy us as a people.”

“上帝把孩子留给你。阻止人们生孩子是错误的,”奥米扎赫说,她甚至现在回想起那一天还会流泪。"他们想摧毁我们这个民族。”

In this image from video, Zumret Dawut, a Uighur from China's far western Xinjiang region, holds documents she brought with her, at her new home in Woodbridge, Va., on Monday, June 15, 2020. Dawut says in China, she was forcibly sterilized for having a third child after being released from a Xinjiang detention camp. (AP Photo/Nathan Ellgren) 在这张来自视频的图片中,2020年6月15日星期一,来自中国最西部新疆地区的维吾尔族人祖姆雷特-达乌特(Zumret Dawut)拿着她带来的文件,在她位于弗吉尼亚州木桥的新家。达乌特说,在中国,她从新疆拘留营获释后,因生了第三个孩子而被强行绝育。(美联社图片/Nathan Ellgren)

The result of the birth control campaign is a climate of terror around having children, as seen in interview after interview. Birth rates in the mostly Uighur regions of Hotan and Kashgar plunged by more than 60% from 2015 to 2018, the latest year available in government statistics. Across the Xinjiang region, birth rates continue to plummet, falling nearly 24% last year alone — compared to just 4.2% nationwide, statistics show.

节育运动的结果是,人们对生育孩子产生了一种恐惧的气氛,这一点,在一个接一个的采访中都可以看到。2015-2018年,和田和喀什等维吾尔族人为主的聚居区出生率骤降60%以上,这是政府统计中最近的一年。统计数据显示,新疆地区的出生率持续大幅下降,仅去年一年就下降了近24%,而全国仅下降了4.2%。

新疆的出生率与中共国汉族的对比

The hundreds of millions of dollars the government pours into birth control has transformed Xinjiang from one of China’s fastest-growing regions to among its slowest in just a few years, according to new research obtained by The Associated Press in advance of publication by China scholar Adrian Zenz.

据美联社(Associated Press)在中共国问题学者阿德里安·赞兹(Adrian Zenz)发表的一项新研究显示,政府投入数亿美元用于控制生育,使新疆在短短几年内从中共国增长最快的地区之一变成了速度最慢的地区之一。

“This kind of drop is unprecedented....there’s a ruthlessness to it,” said Zenz, a leading expert in the policing of China’s minority regions. “This is part of a wider control campaign to subjugate the Uighurs.”

“这种下降是前所未有的……这是一种残酷的举措,”中国少数民族地区治安问题专家赞兹(Zenz)说,“这是镇压和控制维吾尔人更广泛运动的一部分。”

U.S. Secretary of State Michael Pompeo denounced the policies in a statement Monday.

美国国务卿迈克尔·蓬佩奥(Michael Pompeo)星期一在一份声明中谴责了这些政策

“We call on the Chinese Communist Party to immediately end these horrific practices,” he said.

"我们呼吁中国共产党立即停止这些可怕的行径,"他说。

China’s foreign minister derided the story as “fabricated” and “fake news,” saying the government treats all ethnicities equally and protects the legal rights of minorities.

中共国外交部长嘲笑这则报道是"捏造的"和"假新闻",称政府平等对待所有民族,保护少数民族的合法权利。

This Monday, June 15, 2020 photo shows the receipt for a fine levied on Zumret Dawut, a Uighur woman from China's far western Xinjiang region, for having too many children. Dawut, who now lives in Woodbridge, Va., says she was fined 18,400 RMB ($2,600) for having a third child and forcibly sterilized after being released from a Xinjiang detention camp. (Courtesy Zumret Dawut via AP) 这张2020年6月15日星期一的照片显示,来自中国遥远西部新疆地区的维吾尔族妇女祖姆雷特-达乌特(Zumret Dawut)因生育过多孩子而被处以罚款的收据。现居美国维州伍布里奇市的达乌特说,她从新疆拘留营获释后,因生育第三个孩子被罚款18400元人民币(2600美元),并被强制绝育。(Zumret Dawut通过美联社提供)

“Everyone, regardless of whether they’re an ethnic minority or Han Chinese, must follow and act in accordance with the law,” ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian said Monday when asked about the AP story.

外交部发言人赵立坚周一在被问及美联社报道时表示:"每个人,无论他们是少数民族还是汉族人,都必须遵循和按照法律行事。

Chinese officials have said in the past that the new measures are merely meant to be fair, allowing both Han Chinese and ethnic minorities the same number of children.

中国官员过去曾表示,新措施只是为了公平,让汉族和少数民族的儿童人数相同。

In this image from video, Zumret Dawut, a Uighur woman from China's far western Xinjiang region, holds a phone with a picture of her kids at her home in Woodbridge, Va., on Monday, June 15, 2020. She says in China, a doctor tied her fallopian tubes. After waking from the anesthesia, she felt her womb ache, as though it was missing something. “I was so angry. I wanted another son,” she said. (AP Photo/Nathan Ellgren) 在这张来自视频的图片中,2020年6月15日星期一,来自中国遥远的西部新疆地区的维吾尔族妇女祖姆雷特-达乌特(Zumret Dawut)在维州伍德布里奇(Woodbridge)的家中拿着一部手机,上面有她孩子的照片。她说,在中国,医生给她扎了输卵管。从麻醉中醒来后,她觉得自己的子宫很痛,好像少了点什么。"我当时很生气。我想再要一个儿子。"她说。(AP Photo/Nathan Ellgren)

For decades, China had one of the most extensive systems of minority entitlements in the world, with Uighurs and others getting more points on college entrance exams, hiring quotas for government posts and laxer birth control restrictions. Under China’s now-abandoned ‘one child’ policy, the authorities had long encouraged, often forced, contraceptives, sterilization and abortion on Han Chinese. But minorities were allowed two children — three if they came from the countryside.

几十年来,中共国拥有世界上最广泛的少数民族福利制度之一,维吾尔人和其他民族在高考中获得更多分数,享有政府职位招聘配额并放宽计划生育限制。在中国现在被抛弃的”独生子女"政策下,当局长期以来一直鼓励(通常是强迫)对汉族人进行避孕、绝育和堕胎。但是少数民族被允许生两个孩子——如果他们来自农村,可以生三个孩子。

FILE - In this Aug. 30, 2018 file photo, Uighur children play outdoors in Hotan, in western China's Xinjiang region. The Associated Press has found that the Chinese government is carrying out a birth control program aimed at Uighurs, Kazakhs and other largely Muslim minorities in Xinjiang, even as some of the country's Han majority is encouraged to have more children. (AP Photo/Ng Han Guan) 文件 - 在这张2018年8月30日的文件照片中,维吾尔族儿童在中国西部新疆地区的和田进行户外游戏。美联社发现,中国政府正在实施一项针对新疆维吾尔族、哈萨克族和其他主要是穆斯林的少数民族的节育计划,即使该国一些汉族多数人被鼓励多生孩子。(AP Photo/Ng Han Guan)

Under President Xi Jinping, China’s most authoritarian leader in decades, those benefits are now being rolled back. In 2014, soon after Xi visited Xinjiang, the region’s top official said it was time to implement “equal family planning policies” for all ethnicities and “reduce and stabilize birth rates.” In the following years, the government declared that instead of just one child, Han Chinese could now have two, and three in Xinjiang’s rural areas, just like minorities.

在中共国几十年来最专制的领导人习近平的领导下,这些福利正在缩水。2014年,习近平访问新疆后不久,该地区的最高官员表示,是时候实施各民族”平等计划生育政策”以及”降低和稳定出生率”了。在随后的几年中,政府宣布,汉族人现在可以像少数民族一样,生两个孩子,在新疆农村地区生三个孩子。

But while equal on paper, in practice Han Chinese are largely spared the abortions, sterilizations, IUD insertions and detentions for having too many children that are forced on Xinjiang’s other ethnicities, interviews and data show. Some rural Muslims, like Omirzakh, are punished even for having the three children allowed by the law.

但采访和数据显示,虽然在纸面上是平等的,但实际上,汉族人基本上不会像新疆其他民族因孩子多被迫流产、绝育、或使用避孕环和拘留。一些农村穆斯林,如奥米拉赫,甚至在法律允许有三个孩子的情况下也会受到惩罚。

FILE - In this Sept. 20, 2018 file photo, a Uighur woman and children sit on a motor-tricycle after school at the Unity New Village in Hotan, in western China's Xinjiang region. Birth rates in the mostly Uighur regions of Hotan and Kashgar have plunged by more than 60% since 2015, government statistics show. (AP Photo/Andy Wong) 资料图--在这张2018年9月20日的档案照片中,在中国西部新疆地区的和田团结新村,一名维吾尔族妇女和孩子放学后坐在一辆电动三轮车上。政府统计数据显示,自2015年以来,和田和喀什这两个以维吾尔族为主的地区的出生率大幅下降了60%以上。(AP Photo/Andy Wong)

State-backed scholars have warned for years that large rural religious families were at the root of bombings, knifings and other attacks the Xinjiang government blamed on Islamic terrorists. The growing Muslim population was a breeding ground for poverty and extremism which could “heighten political risk,” according to a 2017 paper by the head of the Institute of Sociology at the Xinjiang Academy of Social Sciences. Another cited as a key obstacle the religious belief that “the fetus is a gift from God.”

多年来,中共支持的学者一直警告说,大型农村宗教家庭是爆炸事件、持刀行凶和其他袭击的根源,新疆政府指责这些袭击是伊斯兰恐怖分子的根源。新疆社会科学院社会学研究所所长2017年的撰文称,穆斯林人口的增长是贫困和极端主义的滋生地,可能"加剧政治风险"。另一个关键的问题是他们的宗教信仰"胎儿是上帝赐予的礼物"。

Outside experts say the birth control campaign is part of a state-orchestrated assault on the Uighurs to purge them of their faith and identity and forcibly assimilate them. They’re subjected to political and religious re-education in camps and forced labor in factories, while their children are indoctrinated in orphanages. Uighurs, who are often but not always Muslim, are also tracked by a vast digital surveillance apparatus.

外界专家表示,节育运动是中共清肃维吾尔人运动的一部分,以清除他们的信仰和对自己民族的认知,并强行同化他们。他们在难民营接受政治和宗教再教育,在工厂接受强迫劳动,而他们的孩子则被在孤儿院洗脑。维吾尔人,并不是所有的维吾尔族都是穆斯林,但他们每个人都被一个巨大的数字监控系统跟踪。

FILE - In this Sept. 20, 2018 photo, a Uighur child plays alone in the courtyard of a home at the Unity New Village in Hotan, in western China's Xinjiang region. The hundreds of millions of dollars the government pours into birth control have transformed Xinjiang from one of China’s fastest-growing regions into one of its slowest in just a few years, according to new research obtained by The Associated Press in advance of publication by China scholar Adrian Zenz. (AP Photo/Andy Wong) 资料图--在这张2018年9月20日的照片中,一名维吾尔族儿童在中国西部新疆地区和田团结新村一户人家的院子里独自玩耍。根据美联社在中国学者阿德里安-曾兹(Adrian Zenz)发表前获得的新研究报告,政府投入的数亿计生资金在短短几年内就将新疆从中国发展最快的地区之一变成了发展最慢的地区之一。(AP Photo/Andy Wong)

“The intention may not be to fully eliminate the Uighur population, but it will sharply diminish their vitality,” said Darren Byler, an expert on Uighurs at the University of Colorado. “It will make them easier to assimilate into the mainstream Chinese population.”

科罗拉多大学(University of Colorado)维吾尔问题专家达伦•比勒(Darren Byler)表示:"其意图可能不是要完全消灭维吾尔族人口,但会大大削弱他们的活力。"这将使他们更容易融入中共国主流人口。

Some go a step further

有些人更深度分析

“It’s genocide, full stop. It’s not immediate, shocking, mass-killing on the spot type genocide, but it’s slow, painful, creeping genocide,” said Joanne Smith Finley, who works at Newcastle University in the U.K. “These are direct means of genetically reducing the Uighur population.”

"这是种族灭绝,完全毁掉维吾尔族。这不是立即的、令人震惊的、当场的大规模屠杀类型种族灭绝,但它是缓慢、痛苦、一点一点的种族灭绝,"乔安妮史密斯芬利(Joanne Smith Finley)说,他工作于英国纽卡斯尔大学(Newcastle University)。"这些都是直接手段,基因上减少维吾尔族人口。

For centuries, the majority was Muslim in the arid, landlocked region China now calls “Xinjiang” — meaning “New Frontier” in Mandarin.

几个世纪以来,大多数穆斯林在中国干旱的内陆地区,现在称之为"新疆",在普通话中的意思是"新前沿"。

After the People’s Liberation Army swept through in 1949, China’s new Communist rulers ordered thousands of soldiers to settle in Xinjiang, pushing the Han population from 6.7% that year to more than 40% by 1980. The move sowed anxiety about Chinese migration that persists to this day. Drastic efforts to restrict birth rates in the 1990s were relaxed after major pushback, with many parents paying bribes or registering children as the offspring of friends or other family members.

1949年中共国人民解放军横扫新疆后,中共国新一届共主义统治者命令数千名士兵到新疆定居,使汉族人口从那一年的6.7%到1980年达到40%以上。此举使中国移民的焦虑一直持续到今天。在1990年代,限制出生率的严厉制度有了一些缓解,许多父母行贿或将孩子登记为朋友或其他家庭成员的后代。

That all changed with an unprecedented crackdown starting in 2017, throwing hundreds of thousands of people into prisons and camps for alleged “signs of religious extremism” such as traveling abroad, praying or using foreign social media. Authorities launched what several notices called “dragnet-style” investigations to root out parents with too many children, even those who gave birth decades ago.

从2017年开始,一场史无前例的镇压行动改变了这一切,数十万人因为所谓的"宗教极端主义迹象"而进入监狱和集中营,例如出国旅行、祈祷或使用外国社交媒体。当局发起了几项名为"拖网式"的调查,以根除孩子太多的父母,甚至那些几十年前生下孩子的父母。

“Leave no blind spots,” said two county and township directives in 2018 and 2019 uncovered by Zenz, who is also an independent contractor with the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, a bipartisan nonprofit based in Washington, D.C. “Contain illegal births and lower fertility levels,” said a third.

曾兹在2018年和2019年发现了两个县和乡镇的指令“不要有盲点”,曾兹是共产主义受害者纪念基金会(Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation)的独立合作人,该基金会是一个两党性非盈利组织,总部设在华盛顿特区,"遏制非法生育和降低生育率,"第三方说。

Officials and armed police began pounding on doors, looking for kids and pregnant women. Minority residents were ordered to attend weekly flag-raising ceremonies, where officials threatened detention if they didn’t register all their children, according to interviews backed by attendance slips and booklets. Notices found by the AP show that local governments set up or expanded systems to reward those who report illegal births.

官员和武装警察开始敲门,寻找孩子和孕妇。根据出席记录和小册子支持的访谈,少数族裔居民被命令参加每周一次的升旗仪式,官员威胁说,如果他们不登记所有子女,将被拘留。美联社发现的通知显示,地方政府建立或扩大制度,以奖励那些举报非法生育的人。

In some areas, women were ordered to take gynecology exams after the ceremonies, they said. In others, officials outfitted special rooms with ultrasound scanners for pregnancy tests.

她说,在一些地区,女性在婚礼后被命令参加妇科检查。在其他的地方, 官员们为特殊房间配备了超声波扫描仪,用于怀孕测试。

“Test all who need to be tested,” ordered a township directive from 2018. “Detect and deal with those who violate policies early.”

"测试所有需要测试的人,"命令从2018年乡镇指令。"及早发现并处理违反政策的人。

Abdushukur Umar was among the first to fall victim to the crackdown on children. A jovial Uighur tractor driver-turned-fruit merchant, the proud father considered his seven children a blessing from God.

阿卜杜舒库尔·乌马尔(Abdushukur Umar)是最早成为镇压儿童的受害者之一。这位骄傲的父亲是一位友好的维吾尔族,由拖拉机司机转职为水果商人,他认为他的七个孩子是上帝的祝福。

But authorities began pursuing him in 2016. The following year, he was thrown into a camp and later sentenced to seven years in prison — one for each child, authorities told relatives.

但当局在2016年开始追捕他。第二年,他被扔进了集中营,后来被判处7年监禁——当局告诉亲戚们,每个孩子一年。

“My cousin spent all his time taking care of his family, he never took part in any political movements,” Zuhra Sultan, Umar’s cousin, said from exile in Turkey. “How can you get seven years in prison for having too many children? We’re living in the 21st century — this is unimaginable.”

乌马尔的堂兄祖赫拉·苏丹(Zuhra Sultan)从土耳其流亡,他说:"我的堂兄一直照顾着他的家人,他从未参加过任何政治运动。"你怎么能因为孩子太多而被判七年监禁呢?我们生活在21世纪——这是无法想象的。

Sixteen Uighurs and Kazakhs told the AP they knew people interned or jailed for having too many children. Many received years, even decades in prison.

16名维吾尔人和哈萨克人告诉美联社,他们知道有人因为孩子太多而被拘(或监禁)。许多人被当局监禁数年,甚至几十年。

Leaked data obtained and corroborated by the AP showed that of 484 camp detainees listed in Karakax county in Xinjiang, 149 were there for having too many children - the most common reason for holding them. Time in a camp — what the government calls “education and training” — for parents with too many children is written policy in at least three counties, notices found by Zenz confirmed.

美联社获得和证实的泄露数据显示,在新疆卡拉卡克斯县列出的484名在押人员中,有149人因孩子太多而被拘留,这是关押他们的最常见原因。曾兹发现的通知证实,对于孩子太多的父母来说,在难民营里的时间——政府称之为"教育和培训"——至少三个县是成文的政策。

In 2017, the Xinjiang government also tripled the already hefty fines for violating family planning laws for even the poorest residents — to at least three times the annual disposable income of the county. While fines also apply to Han Chinese, only minorities are sent to the detention camps if they cannot pay, according to interviews and data. Government reports show the counties collect millions of dollars from the fines each year.

2017年,新疆政府还将违反计划生育法的巨额罚款增加两倍,至少是该县平均年可支配收入的三倍。虽然罚款也适用于汉族,但根据采访和数据,只有少数民族因无法支付费用时被送到拘留营。政府报告显示,各县每年从罚款中收取数百万美元。

Gulnar Omirzakh's fine for 17,405 RMB, or $2865, for having a third child.

古尔纳尔·奥米扎赫对生第三个孩子的罚款17,405元人民币(2865美元)。

In other efforts to change the population balance of Xinjiang, China is dangling land, jobs and economic subsidies to lure Han migrants there. It is also aggressively promoting intermarriage between Han Chinese and Uighurs, with one couple telling the AP they were given money for housing and amenities like a washing machine, refrigerator and TV.

在改变新疆人口平衡的其他努力中,中共国正在用土地、就业机会和经济补贴来吸引汉族移民。它还积极推动汉族和维吾尔族的通婚,一对夫妇告诉美联社,他们得到了钱来购买洗衣机、冰箱和电视等住房和设施。

“It links back to China’s long history of dabbling in eugenics….you don’t want people who are poorly educated, marginal minorities breeding quickly,” said James Leibold, a specialist in Chinese ethnic policy at La Trobe in Melbourne. “What you want is your educated Han to increase their birth rate.”

墨尔本拉特罗贝(La Trobe)的华裔政策专家詹姆斯莱博尔德(James Leibold)表示:"这与中共国长期涉足优生学的历史有关......你不想要没受过教育的,边缘化的少数民族快速繁衍", "你希望的是受过很好教育的汉族提高出生率”。

Sultan describes how the policy looks to Uighurs like her: “The Chinese government wants to control the Uighur population and make us fewer and fewer, until we disappear.”

苏丹描述了像她这样的维吾尔人看来的政策:"中共国政府希望控制维吾尔族人口,让我们越来越少,直到我们消失。”

Once in the detention camps, women are subjected to forced IUDs and what appear to be pregnancy prevention shots, according to former detainees. They are also made to attend lectures on how many children they should have.

据此前被拘留者说,一旦进入拘留营,妇女就遭到强迫使用避孕环和避孕药物注射。他们还被迫参加计划生育再教育。

Seven former detainees told the AP that they were force-fed birth control pills or injected with fluids, often with no explanation. Many felt dizzy, tired or ill, and women stopped getting their periods. After being released and leaving China, some went to get medical check-ups and found they were sterile.

七名前被拘留者告诉美联社,他们被强制服用避孕药或注射避孕液体,往往没有解释。许多人感到头晕、疲倦或生病,妇女不再来例假。获释离开中国后,一些人去体检,发现她们不育。

It’s unclear what former detainees were injected with, but Xinjiang hospital slides obtained by the AP show that pregnancy prevention injections, sometimes with the hormonal medication Depo-Provera, are a common family planning measure. Side effects can include headaches and dizziness.

目前还不清楚以前在押人员被注射了什么,但美联社获得的新疆医院幻灯片显示,预防妊娠注射,有时用激素药物醋酸甲地孕酮(Depo-Provera),这是一种常见的计划生育措施。副作用可能包括头痛和头晕。

Dina Nurdybay, a Kazakh woman, was detained in a camp which separated married and unmarried women. The married women were given pregnancy tests, Nurdybay recalled, and forced to have IUDs installed if they had children. She was spared because she was unmarried and childless.

哈萨克妇女迪娜·努尔迪贝(Dina Nurdybay)被拘留在一个将已婚和未婚妇女分开的营地中。努尔迪贝回忆说,已婚妇女接受了怀孕检查,如果她们已有过孩子,她们被迫安装避孕环。她幸免于难,因为她未婚,没有孩子。

One day in February 2018, one of her cellmates, a Uighur woman, had to give a speech confessing what guards called her “crimes.” When a visiting official peered through the iron bars of their cell, she recited her lines in halting Mandarin.

2018年2月的一天,她的一个监狱的同伴,一位维吾尔族妇女,不得不发表声明,承认狱警们给她"罪行"。当一位来访的官员透过牢房的铁栏杆窥视时,她用迟缓的普通话念着台词。

“I gave birth to too many children,” she said. “It shows I’m uneducated and know little about the law.”

"我生了太多的孩子,"她说。"这表明我没有受过教育, 对法律了解很少”。

“Do you think it’s fair that Han people are only allowed to have one child?” the official asked, according to Nurdybay. “You ethnic minorities are shameless, wild and uncivilized.”

"你认为汉族人只允许生一个孩子公平吗?"你们这些少数民族是无耻的,狂野的和不文明的。

Nurdybay met at least two others in the camps whom she learned were locked up for having too many children. Later, she was transferred to another facility with an orphanage that housed hundreds of children, including those with parents detained for giving birth too many times. The children counted the days until they could see their parents on rare visits.

努尔迪贝在难民营里见过至少两个人,她得知他们因为孩子太多而被关在集中营里。后来,她被转到另一所监狱,邻居是孤儿院,那里收容了数百名儿童,包括那些因父母生育太多次而被拘留的儿童。孩子们数着盼着能见到父母得日子。

“They told me they wanted to hug their parents, but they were not allowed,” she said. “They always looked very sad.”

"他们告诉我,他们想拥抱他们的父母,但是不被允许的,"她说。"他们总是看起来很伤心。

One of Xinjiang's internment camps in Artux, China. 新疆阿图克斯的拘留营之一。

Alif Baqytali hugs his mother, Gulnar Omirzakh, at their new home in Shonzhy, Kazakhstan. Omirzakh, a Chinese-born ethnic Kazakh, says she was forced to get an intrauterine contraceptive device, and that authorities in China threatened to detain her if she didn't pay a large fine for giving birth to Alif, her third child. (AP Photo/Mukhit Toktassyn) Alif Baqytali在哈萨克斯坦Shonzhy的新家拥抱他的母亲Gulnar Omirzakh。出生在中国的哈萨克族人奥米尔扎克说,她被迫上了宫内避孕器,中国当局威胁说,如果她不支付巨额罚款,就会拘留她,因为她生下了她的第三个孩子阿力夫。(美联社图片/Mukhit Toktassyn)

Another former detainee, Tursunay Ziyawudun, said she was injected until she stopped having her period, and kicked repeatedly in the lower stomach during interrogations. She now can’t have children and often doubles over in pain, bleeding from her womb, she said.

另一名前被拘留者图尔桑内扎耶乌敦(Tursunay Ziyawudun)说,她被注射直到到停止例假为止,并在审讯期间反复被踢下腹部。她说,她现在不能生孩子了,经常在疼痛中,子宫出血。

Ziyawudun and the 40 other women in her “class” were forced to attend family planning lectures most Wednesdays, where films were screened about impoverished women struggling to feed many children. Married women were rewarded for good behavior with conjugal visits from their husbands, along with showers, towels, and two hours in a bedroom. But there was a catch – they had to take birth control pills beforehand.

扎耶乌敦和她的"班级"里的其他40名妇女在大多数星期三被迫参加计划生育讲座,在那里放映了关于贫困妇女为养活许多孩子而苦苦挣扎的电影。已婚妇女良好的行为会得到奖励,奖励包括丈夫的夫妻探视,有着淋浴、毛巾和在卧室里两小时。但有一个陷阱——他们必须事先服用避孕药。

Some women have even reported forced abortions. Ziyawudun said a “teacher” at her camp told women they would face abortions if found pregnant during gynecology exams.

一些妇女甚至报告了强迫堕胎。扎耶乌敦说,她营地的一位"老师"告诉妇女,如果在妇科检查中发现她们怀孕,她们将面临堕胎。

A woman in another class turned out to be pregnant and disappeared from the camp, she said. She added that two of her cousins who were pregnant got rid of their children on their own because they were so afraid.

她说,另一个班的一名妇女已经怀孕,从营地里消失了。她补充说,她的两个怀孕表亲因为害怕而自己做了流产。

Another woman, Gulbahar Jelilova, confirmed that detainees in her camp were forced to abort their children. She also saw a new mother, still leaking breast milk, who did not know what had happened to her infant. And she met doctors and medical students who were detained for helping Uighurs dodge the system and give birth at home.

另一名妇女古尔巴哈尔·杰利洛娃(Gulbahar Jelilova)证实,她营地的被拘留者被迫流产子女。她还看到一位新妈妈,她仍在漏奶,不知道婴儿发生了什么事。她见了医生和医科学生,他们因为帮助维吾尔人躲避,在家分娩而被拘留。

In December 2017, on a visit from Kazakhstan back to China, Gulzia Mogdin was taken to a hospital after police found WhatsApp on her phone. A urine sample revealed she was two months pregnant with her third child. Officials told Mogdin she needed to get an abortion and threatened to detain her brother if she didn’t.

2017年12月,在从哈萨克斯坦返回中国访问时,古尔齐亚·莫格丁(Gulzia Mogdin)被送往医院,因为警方在她的手机上发现了 WhatsApp。尿样显示她怀了第三个孩子两个月。官员告诉莫格丁,她需要堕胎,并威胁说,如果她不堕胎,就拘留她的弟弟。

During the procedure, medics inserted an electric vacuum into her womb and sucked her fetus out of her body. She was taken home and told to rest, as they planned to take her to a camp.

在手术过程中,医生将电动吸盘插入她的子宫,将胎儿从体内吸出。她被带到家里,并被告知休息,因为他们计划带她去一个营地。

Months later, Mogdin made it back to Kazakhstan, where her husband lives.

几个月后,莫格丁回到了她丈夫所住的哈萨克斯坦。

“That baby was going to be the only baby we had together,” said Mogdin, who had recently remarried. “I cannot sleep. It’s terribly unfair.”

"那个婴儿将是我们唯一的孩子,"莫格丁说,她最近再婚了。"我睡不着。这非常不公平。”

FILE - In this Sept. 20, 2018 file photo, a mural depicting Uighur and Han Chinese men and women carrying the national flag of China, decorates the wall of a home at the Unity New Village in Hotan, in western China's Xinjiang region. Outside experts say the government's birth control campaign for Muslim minorities is part of a broader effort to forcibly assimilate the Uighur and Kazakh populations and rewire their culture, language and identity. (AP Photo/Andy Wong) 资料图--在这张2018年9月20日的档案照片中,一幅描绘维吾尔族和汉族男女手持中国国旗的壁画,装饰在中国西部新疆地区和田团结新村一户人家的墙上。外界专家说,政府为穆斯林少数民族开展的计生运动是强行同化维吾尔族和哈萨克族人口,并对他们的文化、语言和身份进行重新定位的更广泛努力的一部分。(美联社图片/黄安迪)

The success of China’s push to control births among Muslim minorities shows up in the numbers for IUDs and sterilization.

中共控制穆斯林少数民族生育的成功,从节育和绝育的数量上看就已很明了。

In 2014, just over 200,000 IUDs were inserted in Xinjiang. By 2018, that jumped more than 60 percent to nearly 330,000 IUDs. At the same time, IUD use tumbled elsewhere in China, as many women began getting the devices removed.

2014年,新疆人用了20多万避孕环。到2018年,这一数字增长超过60%,达到近33万。与此同时,避孕环的使用在中国其他地方大幅下降,因为许多女性开始取出它们。

A former teacher drafted to work as an instructor at a detention camp described her experience with IUDs to the AP.

一位前教师被征召到拘留营当教员,她向美联社描述了她的避孕环的经历。

She said it started with flag-raising assemblies at her compound in the beginning of 2017, where officials made Uighur residents recite “anti-terror” lessons. They chanted, “If we have too many children, we’re religious extremists....That means we have to go to the training centers.”

她说,这是从2017年初在其大院举行的升旗大会开始的,那里的官员让维吾尔族居民背诵“反恐”课。 他们高喊:“如果我们有太多孩子,我们就是宗教极端主义者……。这意味着我们必须去培训中心。”

Police rounded up over 180 parents with too many children until “not a single one was left,” she said. At night, she said, she lay in bed, stiff with terror, as officers with guns and tasers hauled her neighbors away. From time to time police pounded on her door and searched her apartment for Qurans, knives, prayer mats and of course children, she said.

她说,警方围捕了180多名有太多孩子的父母,没有一个剩下。 她说,到了晚上,她躺在床上,恐惧四射,警察拿着枪和泰瑟枪把邻居拖走了。 她说,警察时不时敲打她的门,在她的公寓里搜查古兰经、刀子、祈祷垫,当然还有孩子。

“Your heart would leap out of your chest,” she said.

她说:“你的心脏会跳出你的胸膛。”

Then, that August, officials in the teacher’s compound were told to install IUDs on all women of childbearing age. She protested, saying she was nearly 50 with just one child and no plans to have more. Officials threatened to drag her to a police station and strap her to an iron chair for interrogation.

然后,那个八月,教师大院的官员被要求在所有育龄妇女身上安装节育环。 她抗议说,她已经快50岁了,只有一个孩子,没有计划再生育更多孩子。 官员威胁要把她拖到派出所,并绑在铁椅上进行讯问。

She was forced into a bus with four armed officers and taken to a hospital where hundreds of Uighur women lined up in silence, waiting for IUDs to be inserted. Some wept quietly, but nobody dared say a word because of the surveillance cameras hanging overhead.

她被迫与四名武装人员一起乘坐公共汽车,被送往医院,数百名维吾尔族妇女默默排队,等待插入宫内节育器。 有些人悄悄地哭泣,但由于监控摄像机悬挂在头顶,没人敢说一个字。

Her IUD was designed to be irremovable without special instruments. The first 15 days, she got headaches and nonstop menstrual bleeding.

她的宫内节育器设计成没有特殊工具就无法拆除。 前15天,她头痛不停,月经不停。

“I couldn’t eat properly, I couldn’t sleep properly. It gave me huge psychological pressure,” she said. “Only Uighurs had to wear it.”

“我无法正常饮食,无法正常睡眠。 这给了我巨大的心理压力,”她说。 “只有维吾尔族才需要戴它。”

Chinese health statistics also show a sterilization boom in Xinjiang.

中国的健康统计数据还显示,新疆的绝育不断发展。

Budget documents obtained by Zenz show that starting in 2016, the Xinjiang government began pumping tens of millions of dollars into a birth control surgery program and cash incentives for women to get sterilized. While sterilization rates plunged in the rest of the country, they surged seven-fold in Xinjiang from 2016 to 2018, to more than 60,000 procedures. The Uighur-majority city of Hotan budgeted for 14,872 sterilizations in 2019 — over 34% of all married women of childbearing age, Zenz found.

曾兹(Zenz)获得的预算文件显示,从2016年开始,新疆政府就开始投入数千万美元用于节育手术计划和现金奖励措施,以鼓励女性接受绝育手术。 尽管全国其他地区的绝育率暴跌,但从2016年到2018年,新疆的绝育率猛增了7倍,超过了60,000例。 曾兹发现,在维吾尔族占多数的城市和田市,2019年预算进行了14872次绝育手术,占所有已婚育龄妇女的34%以上。

新疆的节育率与CCP其它民族的对比

Even within Xinjiang, policies vary widely, being harsher in the heavily Uighur south than the Han-majority north. In Shihezi, a Han-dominated city where Uighurs make up less than 2% of the population, the government subsidizes baby formula and hospital birth services to encourage more children, state media reported.

甚至在新疆,政策也千差万别,在维吾尔族南部,比在汉族占多数的北方要严厉。 据官方媒体报道,在一个以汉族为主的城市石河子,维吾尔族人口不到2%,政府为婴儿配方奶粉和医院生育服务提供补贴,以鼓励更多的孩子。

Zumret Dawut got no such benefits. In 2018, the mother of three was locked in a camp for two months for having an American visa.

祖姆雷特·道特(Zumret Dawut)没有得到任何好处。 2018年,三个孩子的母亲因持有美国签证而被关在营地两个月。

When she returned home under house arrest, officials forced her to get gynecology exams every month, along with all other Uighur women in her compound. Han women were exempted. They warned that if she didn’t take what they called “free examinations”, she could end up back in the camp.

当她回家时被软禁在家,官员们强迫她每月与她住所中的所有其他维吾尔族妇女一起接受妇科检查。 汉族妇女获豁免。 他们警告说,如果她不参加所谓的“免费检查”,她可能会回到集中营。

One day, they turned up with a list of at least 200 Uighur women in her compound with more than two children who had to get sterilized, Dawut recalled.

道特回忆说,有一天,在他们的住所里,他们列出了至少200名维吾尔族妇女的名单,其中有两个以上的孩子必须做绝育手术。

“My Han Chinese neighbors, they sympathized with us Uighurs,” Dawut said. “They told me, ‘oh, you’re suffering terribly, the government is going way too far!’”

“我的汉族邻居,他们同情我们维吾尔族,”道特说。 “他们告诉我,‘哦,你受的罪太可拍了,政府做的太过分了!’”

Dawut protested, but police again threatened to send her back to the camp. During the sterilization procedure, Han Chinese doctors injected her with anesthesia and tied her fallopian tubes — a permanent operation. When Dawut came to, she felt her womb ache.

道特提出抗议,但警方再次威胁要把她送回集中营。 在绝育过程中,汉族医生给她注射了麻醉药,并绑住了她的输卵管,这是一个永久性的手术。 当道特醒来时,她感到子宫疼痛。

“I was so angry,” she said. “I wanted another son.”

“我很生气,”她说。 “我还想要个儿子。”

Looking back, Omirzakh considers herself lucky.

回顾过去,奥米尔扎赫认为自己很幸运。

After that frigid day when officials threatened to lock her up, Omirzakh called relatives around the clock. Hours before the deadline, she scraped together enough money to pay the fine from the sale of her sister’s cow and high-interest loans, leaving her deep in debt.

在那个寒冷的一天,官员威胁要把她关起来,奥米尔扎赫日以继夜地打电话给亲戚。 在截止日期前的几个小时,她凑了足够的钱来支付罚款,卖掉了姐姐的牛和高息贷款,这使她背上了沉重的债务

For the next year, Omirzakh attended classes with the wives of others detained for having too many children. She and her children lived with two local party officials sent specially to spy on them. When her husband was finally released, they fled for Kazakhstan with just a few bundles of blankets and clothes.

第二年,奥米尔扎赫(Omirzakh)与其他因生过多孩子而被关押的妻子们一起上课。 她和她的孩子与特派监视他们的两名地方党员住在一起。 当她的丈夫终于被释放时,他们带着几捆毯子和衣服逃往哈萨克斯坦。

The IUD still in Omirzakh’s womb has now sunk into her flesh, causing inflammation and piercing back pain, “like being stabbed with a knife.” For Omirzakh, it’s a bitter reminder of everything she’s lost — and the plight of those she left behind.

仍在奥米尔扎赫子宫中的宫内节育器现在陷入了她的肉中,引起了发炎背部刺痛,“就像用刀子捅一样”。 对于奥米尔扎赫(Omirzakh)来说,这提醒她失去的一切,以及她留下的那些困境。

“People there are now terrified of giving birth,” she said. “When I think of the word ‘Xinjiang,’ I can still feel that fear.”

她说:“现在,人们对生育感到害怕。” “当我想到“新疆”一词时,我仍然会感到害怕。”

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by:【Himalaya Hawk Squad】