Reflected light hits the emulsion on the film and preserves the image of the light that hit it, or "what it saw."
The shutter of the camera opens and closes between the lens and film when a picture is taken. It controls how long the photo is exposed to light.
The lens and viewpiece are shown in this picture
The lens is a curved piece of glass/plastic that redirects light so it comes together to form a picture. The lens bends and slows down light to converge it at one point.
This is the flash circuit being discharged
The flash circuit (shown above) lights up the room for the fraction of a second that the film is exposed for. Electricity is run through Xenon gas, which, when electrified produces light for the flash.
As shown above, the gas discharge tube stores the Xenon gas, that when electrified produces light. This light is reflected by a reflecting plate to create the flash.
Lenses, view pieces, and other small parts