By: Angelina Kirkwood, emily cipriano, monica aguiar, and carmen gonzalez-berti
How did nationalism, imperialism, and miltiarism help set the stage for World War 1?
- Nationalism can serve as a unifying force within a country. Imperialism in their sense of rivalry and mistrust of one another deepened. Militarism is having military power and keeping an army prepared for war.
The countries in Europe were proud of their military strength and industrial leadership, believing that each were the strongest and best country.
Setting the stage for the Great War
- By the early 1900's, all of Europe's nations had been experiencing a period of tranquility with one another for around 30 years. Europe fought very hard to maintain harmony and achieve a permanent peace continued to grow throughout Europe in the 19th century.
There were several hundred peace organizations established by 1900. During this time, peace congresses met regularly between 1843 and 1907. Europeans began to gain a sense of security by believing there would be no more Wars. They were unable to see that the future would provide a massive war that not only engulfed Europe but the rest of the world too
Rising Tensions in Europe
One of the developments was the growth of nationalism. It served as a unifying force in the country. The increasing rivalry was competition between materials and markets. Imperialism also set the stage for the war. The quest for colonies sometimes pushed European nations to the brink of war. The policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war was known was militarism. Having a large and strong army, make citizens feel empowered and patriotic.
Upcoming rivalries and mistrust had led to the formation of many military alliances among the Great Powers in the early 1870s. The alliance system was created to keep peace in Europe, but it would push the continent into war instead. Between the early 1860s-1870s, Prussia chancellor, Otto von Bismarck used war to unify Germany. He then turned his energies to maintaining peace in Europe. Bismarck believed that France wanted revenge so he wanted to isolate it unless they didn't have allies; France posed no danger to Germany. Three years later Italy joined two countries forming a triple alliance. Bismarck took an ally away from France by making a trade with Russia.
Germanys foreign policy changed dramatically by 1890. -Kaiser Wilhelm II became the ruler of Germany two years earlier while forcing Bismarck to resign. He wanted to assert his own power and didn't want to share it with anyone. -Russia responded to Wilhelm's treaty by forming a defensive alliance with France. War with either Russia or France would make Germany the enemy for both. So, Wilhelm began a shipbuilding program to make German navy equal to that of the British fleet.
As a result of this, Great Britain formed an alliance with both France and Russia called The Triple Entente. This ensured that Britain wouldn't fight against France and Russia. By 1907, two rival camps existed, the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy). The other side was the Triple Entente (Great Britain, France, and Russia). These could draw Europe into war.
Crisis In Balkins
The Balkan Peninsula is a peninsula in the southeast corner of Europe. The Balkins was the "power keg" of Europe. In the 1900, the Ottoman Empire was declining.
The Balkans wanted to free themselves from the Ottoman Turks
The ones that broke free were Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia. They formed new nations.
Each nation wanted to extend their borders.
Serbia, wanted all the slaves in the Balkin peninsula, because they had the largest Slavic population.
Austria, feared that Serbia would incite a rebellion amount its Slavic population.
In 1908 Austria took over Bosnia and Herzegovina, two large Slavic populations. The Serbians wanted to take Bosnia and Herzegovina from Austria.
Austria hoped to crush the Serbians.
June 28, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife, Sophie, went to Sarajevo. They were shot in an open car. The killer was Gavrilo Princip, a 19-year-old Serbian and member of the Black Hand.
The Austrians used this to punish the Serbians. July 23, Austria presented Serbia with an ultimatum
Serbian leaders agreed, and offered to settle other issues.
July 28, Austria rejected Serbia’s offer and declared war.
Russia, an ally of Serbia with its largely Slavic population, took action.
The Armenian Massacre
1 group in southeastern Europe suffered for its independence efforts, they were the Armenians.
-By the 1880s roughly 2.5 million Armenians in the Ottoman Empire demanded freedom. The result of this was relations between the group and is Turkish rulers grew strained. Throughout the 1890s, Turkish troops killed more than 10,000 Armenians. During World War I in 1914, the Armenians supported the Turks' enemies. Then the Turkish government deported less than 2 million Armenians. More than 600,000 died of starvation or were killed by the Turkish soldiers.