The spinning jenny was invented in 1768 by James Hargreaves. The spinning jenny allowed spinners to produce yarn in greater quantities. Previous spinning wheels would produce thread on a single spindle, while Hargreaves's spinning jenny had 8 spindles when it was first invented. Hargreaves named the spinning jenny after his wife.
Edmund Cartwright created a power loom in 1787 that was powered by water. The power loom allowed for the weaving of cloth to catch up with the spinning of yarn. When the power loom became more efficient in textiles, women replaced men as weavers.
James Watt invented a steam engine in the 1760's. The steam engine was powered by steam that could pump water from mines three times as quickly as previous engines. The steam engine allowed for more coal to be extracted from the mines.
In the 1780's, Henry Cort developed a system called puddling. In Cort's puddling system coke that was derived from coal was used to burn away impurities in pig iron and produce an iron of high quality. Cort's invention of the puddling system led Britain to a major boom in their iron industry.
Richard Trevithick created the first steam-powered locomotive on an industrial rail in Southern Wales in 1804. Trevithick's locomotive pulled 10 tons of ore and 70 people at 5mph. Unfortunately, Trevithick's locomotive was retired after only 3 trips because it was so heavy that it broke the rails.
In 1830, George Stephenson and his son created the superior locomotive called Rocket. Stephenson's Rocket was used on the first public railway line in 1830 that stretched 32 miles from Liverpool to Manchester. The Rocket rode at 16mph compared to the 1mph that the original steam engine locomotive traveled at.
During the first half of the 19th century the horrible conditions found in the mines, slums, and factories led to the movement known as socialism. Socialism is an ideology that calls for government ownership of the means of production and the distribution of goods. Socialism was the product of intellectuals who believed in the equality of all people. Socialism reached its height with the invention of Marxism, created by Karl Marx.
During the Industrial Revolution the idea of a trade union was created. Trade unions were associations of workers in the same trade formed to help members secure better wages, benefits, and working conditions. Some trade unions were even willing to strike to win improvements for members of their trades. Trade unions are still used under big companies today.
In 1910, hydroelectric power stations and coal fired steam generating plants enabled homes and factories in whole neighborhoods to be tied into a single, and common source of power. Hydroelectric power stations and coal fired steam engines were created when the first commercially practical generators were developed.
Thomas Edison created the lightbulb in 1879 using the power of electricity. Thomas Edison created the lightbulb using a durable incandescent material, he eliminated air from the bulb, and had a filament material of high resistance. Thomas Edison's lightbulb was taken further when Joseph Swan permitted homes and cities to be illuminated by electric lights.
Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. Bell's telephone led to a revolution in communications. Alexander Graham Bell used the telephone to create sound waves that would vibrate and then create sound. Bell's famous first sound using the telephone was "Mr. Watson, come here, I need you". Bell's telephone invention was taken further when Marconi sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic in 1901.
Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry with the mass production of the Model T car in 1908. Henry Ford used the idea of an assembly line to mass produce the Model T. By 1916, Ford's factories were producing 735,000 cars a year. The Model T propelled the car to the top speeds of 40-45 mph.
In 1903 in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first flight in a fixed wing airplane. The Wright brothers achieved the first powered, sustained, and controlled airplane flight. The Wright brothers developed their wings based on how birds use their wings to fly. The Wright brothers took flight in Kitty Hawk because Kitty Hawk was known for its strong winds.