Geography/Cities of Greece: Greece is a peninsula (which means that three sides of it are surrounded by water). A lot of Greeks made a living off of the water. There were traders, fishers, and sailors. Others settled in farming communities. The rocky soil and mountains were not ideal for farming though. But in some places people could grow olives, grapes, barley, and wheat. They also raised goat and sheep. Early Greek communities grew up fiercely independent.
Organized Government: A direct democracy is also known as a pure democracy, is when people vote for their politicians directly. A representative democracy is a type in which it is founded on the principle of elective officials. A tyranny is a cruel government. Lastly an oligarchy is a small group of people that have control of the land. Direct Democracy/Representative democracy: An advantage of it would be everyone has a voice, most ideas shared, all ideas have potential, equality, protests, but a disadvantage would be some people could be unhappy (minority), majority rules, most arguing, takes more time to hear all opinions, protests. Tyranny: an advantage would be do what the ruler wants, no arguing, everyone must listen, easy to make a decision, but the disadvantages would be fewer ideas, not everyone is involved, unfair. Oligarchy: An advantage would be more ideas, more input to make decisions, an opportunity to discuss ideas, some but less arguing. A disadvantage would be that rulers might not agree, some could be unhappy, rulers could be unwise. CHALLENGE: The best would be a representative democracy because everyone has a voice and you can vote/choose who you want to be a politician.
Writing Systems: The Greek Alphabet is similar to ours now, but different at the same time. Some of the letters used back then are the same as we use now, but about 50% of it is not like ours. They have 2 less letters than the English language. Above I wrote the sentence: I am Nathan (I used the alphabet from the book). CHALLENGE: The Greek alphabet didn't have much of an impact as hieroglyphics or cuneiform because the hieroglyphics and cuneiform were I think the first types of writing so the Greeks didn't create anything new, and maybe because the Greek alphabet had 24 letters while hieroglyphics had 27 and cuneiform had 26, which is the same as our English alphabet now.
Religion: The Greeks believed in what we call myths. Greek mythology included gods and goddesses, including Zeus, Poseidon, Apollo, etc, etc. The Greeks believed that the gods and goddesses shaped nature and created large events. They also believed that the 12 most important gods and goddesses lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain Greece. These gods and goddesses were Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Apollo, Ares, Hades, Hestia, Hermes, Artemis, Athena, Aphrodite, and Demeter. They think there is an afterlife, so when people die they thought their spirits went to the underworld. Because Greeks sought their gods’ favor, they followed many rituals. As part of their rituals, the Greeks prayed to their gods and also gave them gifts. In return, they hoped that the gods would grant good fortune to them. Many Greek festivals honored the gods and goddesses. Festivals dedicated to Zeus were held at Olympia (everything italicized is from the textbook on page 156 on the left side on the bottom, and above is the Greek god Zeus). CHALLENGE: Zeus: Zeus is the ruler of all the gods, and god of the sky. He is easily the most important Greek god. Poseidon: Poseidon is the god of water/sea/oceans and of all aquatic features. He is the brother of Zeus, so he is part of the big three, very important.
Class Divisions: Most of the Greek city-states only allowed native-born men that owned land to be citizens. Later, some city-states including Athens dropped that rule. The Greeks were the first people to make the idea of citizenship, they gave their citizens rights and responsibilities such as running the land. In Greece, all city-states were run by citizens. It wasn't like that in Mesopotamia or Egypt. In Mesopotamia and Egypt the citizens had no rights, no say in government, and no choice but to obey their rulers. They could gather in the agora to choose their officials and pass laws. They had the right to vote, hold office, own property, and defend themselves in court. In return, citizens had a duty to serve in government and to fight for their polis as citizen soldiers. However, only men could do this. Women couldn't do all of the things that men could do. CHALLENGE: a couple advantages are that citizens gets lots of rights and responsibilities, and if you were a citizen you could own land, run the entire land, and you can pass laws too. Some disadvantages is maybe if you were a citizen you didn't want all that power or maybe just a disadvantage could be not being able to be a citizen at all before Athens dropped that rule.
Art: In Greek art, there is poems, stories, fables, drama, tragedy/comedy, and art architecture. Fables became a part of Greece's oral tradition, and they were passed down from person to person. Art and architecture were used to express Greek ideas. Artists wanted people see reason, moderation, balance and harmony in their works, and they hoped that their art would inspire people to live their lives with the same ideas. We have used some of the Greek work in our lives now all over the world (above is an example of Greek art). CHALLENGE: The Greek art I typed above is very important now because we use it and sometimes put our own twist on it and make other types of art, using those types above.
Thanks for reading my project on the 6 Components of Egypt! I hope you enjoyed it and learned a little more about Greece!