Social Organization of South Asia in the First Millennium B.C.E
The Social Organization of South Asia during the First Millennium was a caste system. "The caste system divides Hindus into four main categories - Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras. Many believe that the groups originated from Brahma, the Hindu God of creation."1
Origins of the caste system
According to a long-held theory the caste system "Aryans from central Asia invaded South Asia and introduced the caste system as a means of controlling the local populations. The Aryans defined key roles in society, then assigned groups of people to them."2
Consequences of the caste system
The caste system prevented marriage between different varnas, you were to marry in you same varna. Breaking any of this would be considered breaking the law.
Brahmanism: The Religion
The core concepts of Brahmanism are significantly aligned with metaphysics, questioning what is actually real, the validity of time, of being, of consciousness, and the origin and basis of all existence. Many scholars, such as archaeologists, geologists, Indologists, and philologists, have taken refuge in the writings of the Vedas, especially in the concept of Brahman since it is directly related to humans and their origin.3 "That which existed before creation, that which constitutes the existent whole, and that into which all creation dissolves is the all-pervading Brahman, and the cycle of creation, sustenance, and destruction of the universe is endless." (Kena Upanishad).