What is in the Constitution?

Article I

The focus of Article I is the Legislative Branch. Congress is the face of Legislative Branch. Congress is divided into two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives.

Members of the House of Representatives must be at least twenty-five years old, and they serve two-year terms. Members of the Senate must be at least thirty years old, and they serve six-year terms. Neither Member has to be born in the United States; they must be a citizen of the United States, however.
Congress has the sole power to try Presidents in impeachment trials. Two-thirds of the Members must be present in order to convict.
Congress must meet at least once a year starting with the first Monday in December. When a majority is present, they have constituted a quorum and can do business.
All bills originate in the House of Representatives. Once it has passed, and has passed in the Senate, the President has the option to sign the bill into law. If the President vetoes the bill, Congress can overturn the objection with a two-thirds majority.

Article II

The power in the Executive Branch will be vested in one President of the United States. The President holds the office for four years. To be come a President, one must be at least thirty-five years old and must have been born in the United States.

The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the military, makes treaties, and is in charge of appointing officers of the United States.

Article III

Judicial power, in the United States, is vested in one Supreme Court, and in other inferior courts (state and local). Judges hold their offices during good behavior, which means they can be impeached if they break the law.
The justices of the Supreme Court do not hear every case, but they rule on cases that demonstrate controversy within the Constitution, cases that deal with the United States as a party, or when two states sue each other. The Supreme Court also has appellate jurisdiction which means that they can overrule a judge who heard a case from a lower court.

The Amendments

The first Amendment says there can be no law preventing the freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and freedom to assemble.
The second Amendment protects an American citizen's right to bear arms (own guns).
The third Amendment says that US citizens do not have to have troops stay in their home.

The fourth Amendment protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizure of property. In order for your property to be searched or seized, the police must have a search warrant (i.e. probable cause)

The fifth Amendment protects a US citizen's right to not incriminate themselves, not have to be tried twice for the same crime (double jeopardy), or have to be a witness at his or her own trial.
The sixth Amendment ensures that citizens have a fast and fair trial, with a jury, and that they can confront the accuser.
The seventh Amendment provides for a trial by jury in a civil case, where one party sues another party.
The eighth Amendment prevents someone from having to pay an excessive amount of money to get out of jail. It also prevents cruel and unusual punishments like being tarred and feathered or waterboarded.

The ninth Amendment protects US citizens by saying that rights, not built into the Constitution, are still rights of the citizens.

The tenth Amendment reinforces the principle of federalism. The federal government has the powers granted to it from the Constitution. All other powers are granted to the states or the people.
The eleventh Amendment states that someone cannot sue a state if they live in another state.
The twelfth Amendment revised the Presidential election. After the twelfth Amendment was passed, the Electoral College voted for the President and Vice President.

The thirteenth Amendment ended all slavery in the United States.

The fourteenth Amendment states that all people, born in the United States, have the rights of a US citizen. No state can deprive a person of the right to their life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
The fifteenth Amendment prohibits that a US citizen cannot vote based on their race, or skin color.
The sixteenth Amendment allows the United States Congress to give and collect taxes.
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