Sell & Spin - A History of Advertising
- Grabbing attention and selling the product
- Exploitating desire, lust and attention
- To get consumers subconsiouse and consious
- Creates an illusion that it is directed to 'you'
- the second most recognised word in the world is 'coca cola'
- Promising pleasure and acceptance
- Leo Burnett created branding - personalities and icons as products (eg. tony the tiger)
- When we associate the character with the product we're buying so much more than just the thing. (eg. The Malboro Man - promoted escapism and flavour)
- Iconography = a visual shorthand
- Product failure (eg. Ford Edsel) - It wasn't the advertising that was bad, people just didn't like the way it looked.
- The first advertisements - criers were sometimes even accompanied with musicians.
- Pompeii - images and texts painted on the walls
- The beginning of mass media, 1418 - the Gutenberg press coincided with increase of literacy and consumerism
- There were so many people putting up adverts, that people would tear down each others ads, and they came up with a rule that advertisements could be left up for 2 weeks.
Media saturation - when we are bombarded with adverts - 3,000 a day according to the documentary and that was over 20 years ago!
Branding - what a product represents (lifestyle, personality, identity, values, qualities, look)
Female Representation in Advertising
Objectification - the seeing and/or treating a person, usually a woman, as an object. In the representation of women, this is often sexual objectification.
Gender roles - for women, roles are often limited to housewife or sex object. For men, roles are ofter represented as the bread winner and being served by women.
Dismemberment - cropping and fragmentation of the female body in media images which encourages objectification. Often this is the legs or parts of the torso.
Female Representation in Advertisements (REP test)
(Each question is worth 2 points, the higher you get the better that advertisement is!)
This is the scoring guide. (It was originally for tv shows, movies, etc. but it's still the same concept.)
Lesson 2 - Male Representation in advertising
Metrosexual - A neologism (a made up word) to represent a changing economic trend in male shopping and representation dating from the 80’s. (a man who is attracted to women sexually, but who is also interested in fashion and his appearance)
Spornosexual - A neologism made up word with sport + porn + metrosexual
Lumbersexual/urban lumberjack is a man who has adopted style traits of a traditional lumberjack, namely a beard, plaid shirt and scruffy hair, substituting otherwise clean-cut and fashionable style choices.
Lesson 3 - Abercrombie & Fitch Analysis
Aryan Propaganda - a representation of racial ideology and superiority; face shape and proportions, blue eyes, blonde hair etc.
“It’s almost everything. That’s why we hire good-looking people in our stores. Because good-looking people attract other good-looking people, and we want to market to cool, good-looking people. We don’t market to anyone other than that...Are we exclusionary? Absolutely. Those companies that are in trouble are trying to target everybody: young, old, fat, skinny. But then you become totally vanilla. You don’t alienate anybody, but you don’t excite anybody, either.” - Mike Jeffries, CEO of Abercrombie & Fitch. This is controversial because it completely gives in to racial and gender superiorities and ideologies.
- Gender representation - I think that this advertisement is representing the stereotypical sporty man, shirtless and seems to be on a boat. The image of him pulling on ropes and looking into the distance is a typical gender stereotype.
- Ethnicity - This is Aryan style representation. Abercrombie & FItch's ads are known for that, when you search up their ads, most of the people are fit, young and white.
- National identity - the American flag in the background could represent the 'American Dream' ideaology.
- How did he attract an audience?
- Why specifically is his Volkswagen campaign so commonly cited as an example of outstanding advertising?
Rosser Reeves - 'the hard sell'
- 'Unique selling proposition' (USP) = reason why (to buy this product)
- How is product different from others in the market?
- Repeat endlessly to increase retention
- Used humour to connect with viewers
- Using creativity and art
- No longer patronizing the viewer
Lesson 4 - Advertising and Censorship
Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. Rules can define a wide number of different aspects, such as placement, timing, and content. In the United States, false advertising and health-related ads are regulated the most. Two of the most highly regulated forms of advertising are tobacco advertising and alcohol advertising. (Wikipedia)
- The one on the left is advertising Craven A cigarettes. The one on the right is advertising Maltesers.
- The Craven A advert is claiming that their cigarettes will not hurt your throat, and the Maltesers advert claims that they are not fattening and will help you keep slim.
- Both of these adverts are portraying healthy, white females.
- Companies could not make these claims nowadays, because they could be sued for false advertisement
Identify the groups of people who appear to be most vulnerable to advertising. That is, who are the regulators trying to protect?: I think that one of the most vulnerable groups for advertising are young audiences, i.e teenagers. They are trying to protect easily influenced people.
Adverts for which products are most strictly regulated? Why do you think this is?: Cigarettes and alcohol. I think that guns should be much more strictly regulated, because it's a very serious matter. I think that these things are strictly regulated because they can actually be dangerous and can kill.
In a group, discuss whether you think adverts need to be regulated. What harm might they do (if any)?: We thought that advertisements do need to be regulated. Like violent ones for example, as easily influenced people could take it badly. But, there is a line. Some things should not be 'offensive', for example, same-sex couples.
Create your own set of regulations - about 10 rules which you think should apply to advertisers.
- Any form of violence should not be encouraged.
- Gender genitals should be covered in a way that it cannot be seen.
- You must be able to prove facts that you present within your advertisement.
- The advertisement should not degrade any group of people.
- If the advertisement is photoshopped or enhanced, you should state that it is.
- Smoking, drugs and alcohol should not be encouraged.
- The advertisement should not be exclusive to only one race, unless there is a good reason, for example: cultural appropriation.
- Nobody should be objectified in the advertisement, sexual objectification or not.
- You must state that the advertisement is either sponsored content or an advertisement. (that the advertisement is an advertisement)
- Whoever is in the advertisement must have consented to being broadcasted.
Look at these (controversial) ads from the clothing company Benetton. Would they pass your set of regulations? Would you ban them? Be prepared to explain why or why not.
I can definitely see how these would be controversial, because they don't pass our set of regulations. First of all, I don't really understand how these relate to their company. Yes, Benetton is known for their branding of diversity, and I think their idea is great, they just aren't executing it in a way that would promote it well. However, the first one technically doesn't break any of the rules that we made, because breasts are not genitalia. It might be about multiracial families or adoption, because some people are not as open minded as others. I would not ban the first one because when you think about it, there really is nothing wrong with it. Why should we ban female breasts but not male ones? Then the second one, is not really related to their brand and is very morbid. Next, the third one is confusing because it doesn't even sell or advertise clothing, but, I can understand how they're selling their brand but it still is 'shocking' to a large audience. The last one is also extremely morbid and is not pleasing to look at in general. But, I see how it shows liberty and has a political meaning.
Why was this film banned?
Film 1: Anna Winston
I think it was banned because of the morbid and scary clips, as well as the flashing images. Since it was made in school, there are young people who could be disturbed. It also is more personal, because the characters are around the same ages as the audience. The clip of the hanging feet implies suicide, and that is a very, very sensitive topic for many reasons.
Film 2: Nightfest Promo
It was banned because of the alcohol, because that is very sensitively regulated in media. This is because this will be shown to students, where most of them are underage. People could think that the playing cards could imply gambling.
Film 3: The Innovation Valentines Day promo
It received complaints because it was two girls dancing together which suggested a same sex couple. The norm is a girl and a boy, but this was different because some people still think it is a taboo.
Most complained ads of 2015
- How many complaints were received?
- What was the nature of the complaints (link to the advertising regulations)?
- What was the ruling (upheld or not upheld)
- What explanation was given for the ruling?
- They thought that the ad was offensive and overly sexualised.
- Not upheld
- The ASA said that some viewers could have found it 'distasteful', and they did not judge because they didn't want to be offensive and breach the Code.
Omega Pharma Ltd.
- It body shamed and damaged body image.
- The ASA banned it because of #2, it held irresponsible views of insecurities and body image.
Lesson 6 - Advertising Agencies
- What is the problem that this campaign is seeking to address? "She Objects challenges consumers and content creators to think critically about the correlation between the media’s portrayal of women and and eating disorders and self-esteem issues for girls, violence against women and the erosion of female ambition." - She Objects About us page
- How is the organisation trying to do this? They are trying to show their film in schools, and to get as much media coverage as possible. ***
- How are the various films part of a wider campaign? They have a trailer, a website, school appearances, and a short film.
Advertising Agencies Have Clients: What is the purpose of a pitch in the agency/client relationship?
A pitch is an audition, with the client giving a brief to a number of advertising agencies, and choosing the one that best resolves the brief. Of course, it doesn’t always work that way, but for the most part, this is how agencies are paired with clients.
Everything is Problem/Solution Driven: Explain who has the problem and who comes up with a solution in the context of the agency/client relationship?
The ad agency is there to solve problems for its clients. The client is there to present the agency with its problems, and when it needs solutions.
The Process of Creating Advertising Campaigns: Create a flowchart to represent the process involving the client, the account manager, the creative team and the creative director.
What are the different departments of an advertising agency?
Advertising copywriters generally work alongside an art director. They work with client briefs to conceive, develop and produce effective advertising campaigns. The copywriter provides the verbal or written 'copy'. The copywriter needs skills like: academical thinking, keeping up with popular culture, spelling and articulacy, and knowing the client's values well.
Advertising art directors, often known as 'creatives', produce innovative ideas for the visual elements of advertising campaigns in all kinds of media. The art director needs skills like: developing creative ideas, thinking visually, pitching ideas and communication.
Advertising account planners are responsible for creating the communication strategy for an advertising campaign. This includes targeting the right audience, as well as setting the tone and message of the campaign. The skills needed for an account planner are creativity, imagination and thinking strategically, as well as the two above lists.
They are responsible for the coordination of advertising campaigns and therefore communicating clearly to all those involved. They manage administrative and campaign work and ensure that advertising projects are completed on time and on budget. Skills include: being able to work in a competitive environment, and as well as all of the skill needed in the lists above.
What role would I be suited to/like to do most?
I think I would like to do copywriter the most. I think I am a creative person, but I also really like English and writing scripts. I also really like cinematography, since the copywriter and art director basically share jobs, I think I would really like to do that. I also have experience in making films and writing scripts.
Lesson 7 - Campaigns
- What is the problem that this campaign is seeking to address?
- How is the organisation trying to do this?
- How are the various films part of a wider campaign?
- Covergirl is trying to address gender equality and diversity in makeup.
- In Covergirl's advertisement for their So Lashy! mascara, they have a very diverse group of people. There is a line in the advertisement that goes, "New So Lashy! mascara works for all lash types!". The word all emphasises their objective: makeup for all, equality for all, rights for all.
- The advertisement is for an actual product that they are selling, the mascara, and they have ambassadors, James Charles, the first male Covergirl, and Katy Perry.
- They are trying to address the hate directed to females in sports, which is a product of gender norms and gender inequality.
- We are trying to address slut-shaming, gender inequality and how society judges an individual on their looks.
Lesson 8 - Copyright & Wrongs
Fair use - the ability to use a small amount of someone’s creative work without permission, but only in certain ways
Cannot be used for commercial purposes. Can only be used in certain ways:
- schoolwork & education
- criticism or social commentary
- news reporting
- comedy or parody
Commercial purposes - a use in connection with a business, usually for profit
Copyright - a law that protects a creator’s ownership of and control over the work he or she creates, requiring other people to get the creator’s permission before they copy, share, or perform that work
Creative commons - a kind of copyright that makes it easy for people to copy, share, and build on someone’s creative work – as long as they give the creator credit for it
Public domain - creative work that’s not protected by copyright and is therefore free for one to use however one wants
If you created a picture, poem, or video and posted it online, what do you think you would do?
Would you make people get your permission every time they used the work, use a Creative Commons license, or put it in the public domain?
I think if I wanted it to be open for people to use it, I'd want it on creative commons. This is because I'd still want credit, because if I put lots of effort, I'd want that.
- Interesting storyline
- Like how it was a story, instead of interviews
- Split screen makeup scene was good
- Editing was 'fantastic', texting theme was good
- Bit over the time limit, didn't need credits
- Great how there was male representation as well
- Wanted to hear the characters saying the things towards the end, like they were standing up for themselves
- Would be better if there were reaction shots
- Good how there was slo-mo at appropriate times, and sped up at good times
- Liked how it was subtitles, instead of audible dialogue (how it was secretive like they were whispering it to each other)
Copywriter Report: #WhatAreYouWearing
I think that our film was effective and powerful. For example, ways and techniques that helped us to achieve that was: In editing we considered the speed of certain scenes. We used slow motion at appropriate times to make a scene clearer and for people to pay more attention to it. We used slow and fast motion throughout the whole film, but only goes into normal time when they meet. We did this to convey how real time can feel in those situations. When we are hurt, we feel it for longer, and it feels like it’s never going to end. We used fast motion to make it shorter and move quicker, because it would have been too long. Adding on to that, we still went overtime. However, that was because of the credits.
Our hashtag was a very important part of our campaign. The idea of it was to turn it around; the way that 'what are you wearing?' is usually used in a judgemental way. This links to our campaign and how you can get involved, because you literally show what you are wearing. We used repetition in our film too. What we did was when the protagonists walked by the group of girls/boys, they said 'what are you wearing?' in a bad way, but then later in the film where the two of them bump into each other, the girl says 'what are you wearing?' in a good way.
Also, we used a split screen to show a boy and a girl to show that this type of bullying and harassment happens to everyone, and therefore we wanted everyone to be involved in our campaign. Another reason why we did this was because I thought male representation in advertising is not as diverse as it should be. We have to show men in a way that doesn't diminish their likes or dislikes, and show it in a less alienating way. But, what we did here is the first step to that ideal; we make it (makeup, wearing clothes marketed for the other gender) something that people shouldn't make fun of in the first place. Because, why are gender roles funny?
Apart from gender, our film touches on heteronormative stereotypes, as the group of boys making fun of Will call him things like 'gay', 'drag queen', and 'sissy'. We put those words in subtitles because we wanted them to make an impact. Since hearing those words being used as a slur is so common in a high school, we wanted to, literally, spell it out for them. We think that words have a certain special, different and impactful meaning when written out. However, words said out loud are extremely effective as well. But, we wrote it out because when people use those words as slurs, and see the other side of the story, it's not some word to be thrown around anymore. Especially not if they use it with intentions to insult. The film is also about slut shaming and the unfairness that women receive when it comes to wearing what they want. As the copywriter, I put in ‘she’s asking for it’, because that is so common, especially when it comes to rape victims. We also made it subtitles to make it look secretive and like they're whispering about them.
In the introduction I used a typewriter function on Final Cut Pro, and added Apple imessage effects. I think that this was very effective. I decided to add this detail because we needed to show that these issues also happen online. As you can see in the image above, we also had two of the girls have their phones out, as if they were recording or already texting about it.
Overall, I think it came out really really well, and how we pictured it! The only thing is that I wish we had more time to film, because if we did, I could have done much more in editing. For example, put more effects like messages popping up, or more scenes to bring it more in depth. So, next time, I think we should spend more time filming, because every time we did, it was very rushed and we couldn't get many options. Therefore, in editing, I didn't have much variation.
Lesson 9: Web 3.0 & Privacy
The good, the bad, and the ugly.
Track - when companies collect information about you based on your online behavior
Target - when companies tailor content to you based on the information they have collected about you
Demographic - common categories of the population, such as age, gender, and race
Cookies - data files that are stored on your computer when you visit certain sites, often used by companies to identify repeat customers and personalize visitors’ experiences
A filter bubble is when companies, such as google, filter what you see and consume on the internet. What you see could be unbalanced, we don't broaden our point of view and aren't exposed to new information.
This is what comes up when I google myself.