World War 1 By Gianna Epich

Causes:

  • Imperialism (ex. Britain's thirst for Africa and the conflict caused as other European countries began fighting for parts of it)
  • Militarism (strengthening American military)
  • Nationalism (pride in own country grows exponentially across the world)
  • The crisis in Morocco (Germany challenges France's influence and worsens tension)
  • Secret alliances (such as the ones between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy against France, but Italy also agreed to support France against Germany)
  • Triple Entente: alliance between France, Russia, and Great Britain after French Italian alliance ends
  • Assassination of Austria-Hungary's archduke gave an opportunity for Austrian control over Serbia

Why the U.S. entered the war

  • German submarines attacked American passenger ships
  • Germany established a naval blockade that interfered with British-American trade
  • Germany pledged to maintain passenger safety in 1916 but continued to sink unarmed American passenger ships
  • In 1917, Germany formed an alliance with Mexico and agreed to assist them regain land lost to the U.S.
  • U.S. officially joined war on April 6, 1917

Average American soldier in WWI

  • White American soldiers deployed to Europe are nicknamed doughboys
  • Average 18-23 years old
  • Immigrants and minorities are often denied as soldiers due to suspicion of their citizenship status even though congress stated all men of age were eligible
  • Immigrants made up only 18% of soldiers
  • Most soldiers were drafted

Summary of the First Battle of the Marne

  • Involved France, German empire, and U.K.
  • Occurred in September 1914
  • Germany intended to seize Paris, but French held out until U.K. came to assist
  • Germany suddenly changed direction of attack, but the French discovered and surprised Germans with new battle plan
  • All accounts claim the French had unprecedentedly fast recovery and continued to fight even after injury and fatigue
  • Successful and risky battle strategies and military strength resulted in French/Allied victory

Home front Experiences

  • Main focus of citizens was to uphold the economy and food/goods production
  • Women were given more involved opportunities in the national workforce ("men's work", ex. machinery and engineering, or ticket collectors, railway guards, etc.)
  • Ethnic/racial minorities increase and are forced to adopt American ideals and ways of life because of the NAC (National Americanization Commitee)
  • Life was difficult as food and resources were short, many falmilies struggled economically
  • Many government agencies (FBI, American Protective League) targeted "unloyal" citizens who were against America's involvement and choices in the war

Outcomes of WW1

  • Paris Peace Conference and signing of Treaty of Versailles, Germany is held accountable for the war and damage payment (German troops also limited to 100,000 and weapon production prohibited)
  • About $33 billion Germany owed in reparations
  • Wilson's Fourteen Points (to prevent future American involvement in European conflicts)
  • Total deaths about 17 million and 20 million wounded

Credits:

Created with images by janeb13 - "war soldiers marine" • Gruenemann - "Evan as Doughboy 2" • Thoth, God of Knowledge - "Westinghouse - ELECTRICAL UTILITIES FOR THE HOUSEHOLD - Fuel and Labor"

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