**PHYLOGENY - study of how living & extinct organism are related to one another.
**CLADE - group of species that includes a single common ancestor & all descendants of that ancestor.
**CLADOGRAM - diagram that links groups of organism by showing how evolutionary lines, or lineages branched off from common ancestors.
**DERIVED CHARACTER - trait that arose in the most recent common ancestor of a particular lineage & passed to its descendants.
**BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE - 2-word naming system developed by Carolus Linnaeus in the 1730's. First part of the name is the genus & 2nd part is the species.
**3 DOMAINS - the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy. BACTERIA - ARCHAEA - EUKARYA
Designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist. According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life (biology) consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria, and Eukarya. The first two are all prokaryotic microorganisms, or single-celled organisms whose cells have no nucleus. All life that has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, and multicellular organisms, is included in the Eukarya.
** 5 KINGDOMS - Eubacteria - Archaebacteria - Protista - Fungi - Plantae - Animalia