ISIS the first era of terror of the century

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), Daesh being its arabic acronym, is a Salafi jihadist unrecognized state. Its soldiers follows the fundamentalist doctrine of Sunni.

  • Sunni Islam: is the largest denomination of Islam. Its name comes from the word Sunnah, reffering to the examplary behavior of the islamic prophet Muhammed.
  • Wahhabism: is a sect/ branch of Islam described as "ultraconservative" "austere" and "puritan".

Creation of Islam

The religion of Islam appeared in Arabia at the beginning of the seventh century under the impulse of the prophet Muhammad. At that time Arabia was under the influence of three empires, the Sassanid, Byzantine and Aksum Kingdom empires. It extended by the war to Persia from 636 (Battle of Cadesia), then to Iraq, Iran, Upper Mesopotamia; And in the west to Syria, Palestine and Egypt.

Arabic expansion under Mohammed I and the three first Caliph, Abou Bakr II, Omar III and Uthman IV

According to the Islamic vision, the Quoran is a return to the roots, an ultimate confirmation of the scriptures already revealed earlier (Torah / Bible), of which Jews and Christians have moved away. Muhammad was inspired by Jewish texts and especially by the Torah. (Although the reflection of the Old Testament in the Quoran is rather partial, it contains many allusions and mentions many stories and biblical figures. Thus, Abraham and Moses were, for example Islamized in Ibrahim and Moussa).

Creation of ISIS

  • 1979: The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan, Afghan counter attack is lead by Ossama Bin Laden and Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. Both of them do not get along however they still manage to spread ideas in Iraq and in Afghanistan (by 2001 controlled by the Talibans), starting the official Creation of Al-Quaeda.
  • 2001: September 11, 2001 the twins towers in New York are attacked by Al-Quaeda. The United States under Bush presidency invades Afghanistan.
  • 2002: President Bush sends US army troop in Iraq (Baghdad), the dictator Saddam Husssein sends a defensive attack lead by Zarqawi.
  • 2004: The Iraqi learder Abu Musab al-Zarqawi becomes the most powerful djihadist and Al Quaeda previously located in Afghanistan allies with him to become: AQI (Al Quaeda in Iraq).
  • 2006: Iraq Sunni fighters rises against Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who is then killed by an US airstrike.
  • 2011: Arab Spring spreads across Middle East causing: Departure of Heads of State in Tunisia, Egypt and Yemen. The Death of the leader of Libya. A Change of constitution in Morocco. A change of government in Jordan. Military intervention of the Gulf countries in Bahrain. Civil Wars in Libya, Syria and Yemen. Elections of Islamist governments in Tunisia, Morocco and Egypt. Coup d'etat in Egypt in 2013 against the Islamist president. At least 68 753 deaths and approximately 18,000 to 67,000 injured.
  • 2011: AQI (Al-Quaeda In Iraq) becomes officially ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) lead by a religious scholar Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. In Syria Bashar al Assad crushes protesters revolts, releases prisoners to join the rebels and engage The Syrian Civil War.
  • 2012: Abu Musab al-Zarqawi sends Jabhat al Nusra to Syria and reals releases former prisoners to fight along syrian rebels.
  • 2013: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi takes control over all Al Quaeda forces in Syria and Iraq.
  • 2014: In April, ISIS becomes a military force, takes over Syria by controlling a third of the territory) and part of Syria. In August, ISIS invades Kurdish territory creating a genocide and the murder of the journalist James Foley. In respond America sends airstrike and ISIS loose a fith of its territory.
  • 2015: Since then the world has witnessed series of attacks. The Middle East and Europe being the principal targets.

Slick Propaganda

Beyond very little cultural renewal in Middle East due to religious beliefs proning to submission rather than change, the Propaganda ISIS leads has been inattentionally feed by the rise of secularization, especially the past decades with the Atheism becoming a social norm. This century represents a very individualistic culture, a culture of selfishness and celebrity. ISIS in this era is percieved by angry, lost muslim and international men as a promise for a better cause in this world that failed to give them a purpose in life.

Territorial Expansion/Claim

ISIS is spread throughout the Middle East and North Africa and claim power primarally over Syrian, Liban, Iraq, Afghanistan, Lebannon, Sinai, Algeria, Gaza,Khosasah, and Yemen.

Finances

The Islamic state is not supported by any foreign state but the group has received financial support from wealthy individual donors, most of them from the Gulf countries. ISIS main source of revenues comes from oil, looting of wealth (takes hold of the cash reserves of the banks in cities) and the black market (weapons, sexual and human trafficking being the main activities). However with a little loss of territory and Russian-American air strikes targeted on the oil infrastructures; Over the past two years made difficult for the organisation to maintain substainable wealth.

War Crimes and Human Rights Abuse

According to a report by Minority Rights Group International, the Islamic State encourages the slavery of non-Muslim women, whether they be children or adults. Rape is practiced as a weapon of war, and its encouragement is used to seduce future recruits from very conservative circles where sex outside marriage is taboo.

On the 11 November 2015 ISIS educational system was proclamed, composed of 600 000 students aged from six years old to fifteen years old and 50 000 teachers . The programm includes "rules of sharia", as well as Arabic, mathematics, history, geography, English, computer science and a study in depth of the Quoran.

Destruction of works of art and religious or historical buildings described by UNESCO as a war crime has been a main focus as well. Eradicating religious sites considered as "heretical", thus In February 2015, members of the Islamic state destroyed a collection of statues and sculptures in the Mosul Museum, some of them dating back to the third century BC. In August 2015, the Islamic State destroyed the temple of Baalshamin in Palmyra, Syria. In January 2015, they invaded the Mosul Central Library and destroyed hundreds of manuscripts (some preserved for 5000 years and more), vandalizing many ancient works (mainly children's books, poetry, philosophy, health, sports and science). An autodafe alert made by UNESCO Director-General Irina Bokova, states that "this is one of the greatest intentional destruction of books in human history".

Several massacres are also committed against civilians, particularly against the Yezidis or against Sunni tribes hostile to the Islamic state, such as the Al-Cheitaat or the Albou Nimr. The Islamic State also kills some of its members; combatants who misappropriated funds or deserters. The most commonly used methods of execution are shootings, decapitations, and crucifixions. According to a report by the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) of 4 February 2015, minority Iraqi children were sold by ISIS as sex slaves, others were decapitated, crucified or buried alive. Children have also been used as suicide bombers, especially mentally disabled children. The Islamic State is accused by the UN, the Arab League, the United States and the European Union of war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity.

Goals and Strategy

ISIS goal is to establish itself as a caliphate, a Worldwide Islamic State led by a group of religious authorities under a supreme leader – the caliph – who is believed to be the successor to Prophet Muhammad. Their main strategy is ensure deep psychollogical torture to ensure alliegance and fear.

Attacks Abroad

In the course of the last two years, eighteen deadly attacks occured in Europe, however France, with the abolition of the second Amendment (after the French Revolution in 1789) and a huge laxity in laws concerning security made it the target nuber one in Europe. The most famous ones Attacks happened on November 13th, a series of shootings and deadly suicide attacks perpetrated in the evening in 4 restaurants-Bistro as well as in a concert hall "Le Bataclan" of the 10th and 11th districts in Paris and in its periphery at the Stade de France by three separate commandos of nine men; causing 413 injured and 30 deaths including one of my friend that was at the concert hall and died that night.

The US President Barack Obama and French President François Hollande paying tribute to the civilians that perished on November 13th 2015.
Dead body outside of the Concert Hall "Le Bataclan" on November 13th 2015.

The second most marking attack in France happened during "Le quatorze Juillet" (the French 4th of July) marking the storming of the Bastille, thus the first civilian uprising lighting the spark of the French Revolution. On 14 July, 2016 a heavy lorry deliberately travels two kilometers through a crowd of people at the end of the fireworks given for the French National holiday; resluting in 86 deaths of which ten children and 434 injured. These attacks are key points in ISIS Doctrine, as the French President mentioned "these attacks are against what French people do the best: live. These attacks are against delights that makes the greatness of our Nation. These attacks are against life itself".

"Promenade des Anglais" walkside where a truck rolled on pedestrians on July 14th 2016.

Permanent Damage: Islamophobia

Percecution over a specific religion has been practiced since the beginning of civilization. However after WorldWar II and the Holocaust, America and Europe swore to never let history reproduce itself; by taking precautions such as the creation of The United Nations and the European Union, the World was trying to assure a important coalition leading to improvements on diverse issues wolrdwide. However the past two years being very active on ISIS side is depply felt politically wise around the globe; with an exuberant rise of Nationalism deeply tighted with Conservatism. The best example of being Trump's Elections as the 45th President of the United States and his travel ban (trully appreciate by ISIS showing them that the terror strategy is succeful). This situation is currently crowned with additional propagandas of far right movement across Europe.

From left to right: Marine Le Pen, Vladimir Putin, Donald Trump, Nigel Farage.

This rise in popular vote brings the come back of Populism and its Dictatorship with Democracy as a façade. This Era is a turning point in History where ISIS is profondly changing the relationship between Islam and the rest of the World forever.

MLA Citations

n.a. "Printemps Arabe". Wikipedia. n.p. n.d. Web. 15 Frebruary 2017. n.a.

"Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant". Wikipedia. n.p. n.d. Web. 15 February 2017.

Desplanques. Anne. "Pourquoi la Propagande de ISIS fonctionne en Occident". Le Journal de Montréal. Actualité Société. 23 October 2014. Web. 15 February 2017.

n.a "Islamic State and the crisis in Iraq and Syria in maps". BBC. n.p. December 2016. Web. 10 February 2017.

Created By
Melinda Ricardo
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