Tripods are a very useful piece of equipment as they ensure an image will be sharp. In this circumstance a tripod will mostly be used with slow shutter speeds in low light conditions.
Tripods are not only good for slow shutter speeds they are also used when images are going to be enlarged. This means camera shake will be less obvious.
When shooting macro subjects tripods are needed as the camera would be so close to the subject.
Image stabilization is a technology that helps stabilize the lens movement that comes from hand shake or slow shutter speeds. It is handy in low light situations when a tripod is not available.
It may use vibrations to reduce camera shake when the camera is held in your hands.
The down side to this would be that it actually causes blur when put on a tripod.
Using a timer on your camera can reduce camera shake as the motion of hitting the shutter button will not have an effect on the photo.
Mirror Lock Up Func
Mirror lock up function allows the photographer to flip up the mirror prior to the shutter to decrease the chances of camera shake.
This method is mostly used by landscape or night photographers when slow shutter speeds are needed, it allows the image to be taken sharper due to the lack of vibration or movement caused by the mirror flipping up.
Why do photographers use flash outside?
Fill in flash is used to 'fill in' and lighten the dark shadows caused by a lack of light on the face.
It is also used when the background behind a subject is brighter, fill in flash helps to balance this out.
When the flash is too harsh it can make the photo look flat and unnatural, a way to stop this would be to lower the flash exposure compensation so just enough light is used to fill in shadows. Another way to keep the image looking natural is to bounce the flash of a surface which will allow the light to spread more evenly on the face.
Continuous light sources
Studio lights that stay on are a continuous light source as they stay on the whole time you are shooting. This allows the photographer to visualise the shoot better as there is no need to take a photo and review before moving any lights.
Light trails and continuous light
Another example of continuous lighting would be light trails. Light trails are captured by slow shutter speeds and moving light, this creates a feeling of movement in the photo.
Many effects can be captured by using this method, for example sparklers or torches can be used to shoot very creative shots.
White, silver and gold
Reflectors come in three different colours in order to get the desired look. White reflectors bounce less light compared to silver which reflect more ambient light, whereas gold reflectors add a warm to the subjects face.
Reflectors are used to fill in and lighten shadows.
In portraits reflectors can be used as the main light source and are used to reflect light into the subjects face, this can add catchlight in their eyes and light on the hair.
Makeshift lens hood
Flags are used to control and shape light. They can also be used to reduce the amount of highlight on a subject.
Flags create shadows or darken areas that are quite light.
Lens hoods also prevent lens flare when the camera is pointed towards the light.
Diffusers are used in front of a light source in order to spread or 'diffuse' the light if it is too harsh.