protein synthesis jaida austin

what is protein synthesis?

Protein synthesis is the process were genetic info is moved from the nucleus to the ribosomes

transciption

  1. DNA molecules unzips
  2. RNA polymerase moves along the DNA strand, synthesising an mRNA molecule
  3. One side of DNA "codes for a protein"
  4. Genetic code of DNA is a triplet code of 3 nucleotides or bases
  5. Each triplet is specific for the coding of a single amino acid
  6. Sequence of triplet codes on DNA will specify the amino acid sequence on the protein
  7. Major step is the synthesis of the coded "messenger" molecule - mRNA
  8. mRNA is "transcribed" from DNA by complementary base pairing (mRNA has no thymine, which is replaced by uracil

dna & rna base pair rules

DNA: A-T C-G RNA: A-U C-G

DNA CANNOT LEAVE THE CELL BECAUSE IT IS TO BIG .

TRANSLATION

  • The ribosome binds to mRNA at a specific area.
  • The ribosome starts matching tRNA anticodon sequences to the mRNA codon sequence
  • Each time a new tRNA comes into the ribosome, the amino acid that it was carrying gets added to the elongating polypeptide chain.

this occurs in the stage mitosis

this occurs in the cytoplasm

mutation

the changing of the structure of a gene

the change is a codon causes a mutation

FRAME-SHIFT mutation is ...

  • a genetic mutation caused by deletions of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence

point shift mutation is

  • a mutation affecting only one or very few nucleotides in a gene sequence.

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