Dred Scott Decision
(Supreme Court house) The Dred Scott decision was about a slave named Dred Scott and how when him and his master traveled to Illinois and Minnesota. He claimed that since they were in free territory he should be free. Chief Justice Roger Taney disagreed and said that Dred Scott was still a slave since he was property of his owner. This case was referred to as the "Dred Scott Decision."
The Emancipation Proclamation was an order given by Abraham Lincoln. This declared that all slaves were free in the Confederate States. The problem was that the Union had no power over the Confederate states. Even though Lincoln demanded slaves to be free, the order had no effect.
The 13th Amendment
After the Civil War ended, Lincoln wanted to make sure that slavery was abolished everywhere in the United States, so in order to do this he had to make an amendment to the constitution. Once it was made it was approved by 27 out of 36 states and was accepted, in 1865. This also canceled out any old laws that supported slavery.
The 14th Amendment
In the Dred Scott decision case the Chief Justice stated that no slaves would ever be able to become a US citizen. When the 14th Amendment was made it allowed anyone, no matter what, if they were born in the United States, could be an American Citizen.
The 15th Amendment
Before 1870 African Americans were not allowed to vote in elections, even if they have never been slaves. The 15th Amendment made it illegal to dent another man the right to vote based on what race they are.
Separate but equal
In the Supreme Court Case Plessy vs Ferguson the supreme court ruled that segregation is okay as long as African Americans were given equal accommodations as others. Therefore there would be separate water fountains, bathrooms, and medicinal care, but they would be equal in quality.
Brown v. The Board of Education
In this case the Supreme court ruled that the segregation is public schools, and facilities, was unconstitutional. This law made it possible for African American students to attend school with white students.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
In Montgomery, Alabama and other places in the US, there were separate seats on the bus for black people and white people. For example Rosa Parks, a black women, refused to give up her seat to a white man. She was arrested and thrown in jail. For over a year, African Americans boycotted, or refused to ride, the city buses. Finally on December 21, 1956, the Supreme Court declared the segregated bus rules unconstitutional.
Little Rock Nine
Even though the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public school was unconstitutional, many schools still did not allow black students to attend school with white students tried to attend Little Rock Central High School. The Governor of Arkansas tried to prevent this by sending in the National Guard. However, President Eisenhower overruled his decision.
On Feb 1st a group of black men sat at an all-white counter they refused to move and this became a peaceful way of protesting know as Sit-Ins
Ruby Bridges who was an African American girl, was a first grade that was chosen to attend an all-white school many white students were pulled out of that school by their parents, she was escorted by marshals into the school and she eventually graduated high school and collage
The freedom riders were groups of people who rode buses in segregated areas to protest they were a group of different people who believe that segregation was wrong
James Meredith applied and got accepted to the university of Mississippi but when they found out his race they denied his application this case got to the Supreme court and he eventually graduated
I have a dream speech
Speech given by Martian Luther King Jr. had brought a crowd of over 250,000 people the march and the speech encouraged the president to pass laws against segregation