Genetics By: Luke, Noor, and Blake

The Father Of Genetics
Gregor Mendel, also known known as the "father of genetics", first noticed genetic variation within his monastery when he saw that the pea plants had different colored flowers. Sometimes more were purple while other times there were more pink flowers. He then tried to breed different pea plants with others to see if there be even more variation.Mendel used the process of monohyrid and dihybrid to get the desired traits he wanted.
More on Genetics

Through Mendel's research, we have been able to classify genetics as the study of heredity and variation. The traits that you receive from your parents comes from heredity, and variation comes from the combinations of your genes. Genes are the units that these traits reside on and each gene is composed of two alleles, one from the mother and one from the father

Epigenome is similar to a punctuation marker, it makes it easier to read genes and control certain genes .

Dominant and Recessive

Each allele that you receive from each of your parents s able to be dominant or recessive. The dominant traits are more likely to be carried to offspring.To represent dominant and recessive alleles, dominant alleles are capital letters and recessive ones are lower case letters. You will only ever see a recessive trait if both alleles are recessive and a dominant allele is not present at all, this is called Mendel's’ Principle of Dominance.

Genotypes, and Phenotypes

A genotype is a person's genetic identity and phenotype is the physical traits that can observed by just looking at the organism. The genotype determines the phenotype of an organism. For example, if a brown mouse procreates with a white mouse the genotype and even the phenotype for the offspring will be a combination of the parent mice.Through the use of a punnet square you will be able to find the genotype and eventually the phenotype.

How to complete a Punnett Square

A punnett square is used in the field of genetics to predict the potential genotype and phenotype. You place one genotype on top of the square and the other on the square's side after that you cross paths with all the alleles.

The top genotype (TT) would be called Homogeneous dominate because the genotype is composed of the same form of the letter (homo) and the letters are capitalized (dominate).

The genotype on the side (Tt) would be called heterozygous dominate because the genotype is composed of a lowercase and a uppercase letter (hetero), this genotype is still dominate because it has a dominate allele (T).

*****The one way it can be a recessive genotype is if both allies are lowercase*****

The phenotype: TT=50% & Tt=50%

Incomplete dominance and Codominance

When some organisms are born they can have a blend of the mother and father's physical traits, they can either become codominant or incomplete dominant. Codominance occurs when and organism expresses a blend of the mother and father's traits such as a white and a brown horse giving birth to a white and brown splotched horse. Incomplete dominance occurs when two dominant traits are shown at the same time such as an African American and a Caucasian giving birth to a child with light brown skin.

Represents the chromosomes of a male

Sex chromosomes are the 23rd chromosome for humans which determines if you will be a male or female. chromosomes 1-22 are called autosomes.

Before we are born, we all start off with the XX chromosome, while some keep the XX chromosome, others will have it switch to XY. Males are more likely to show a sex linked trait because the Y chromosome doesn't have the dominant genes that would be able to cover up the recessive genes found on the X chromosome. While occurrences are few and far between, it is also possible for males to carry a Y-linked sex trait that cannot be inherited in females, but is passed down, therefore they will be simply known as a carrier.

Blood, charts, and more

A pedigree is a family-tree -like chart that explains the genetic history of family over several generations .On a Pedigree chart females are represented by a circle and males are represented with a square.

*If a female or a male are carriers of a trait their shape would be filled in*

A epigenome is a marker that makes it easier to read genes and DNA 

Your chromosomal profile is called Karyotype and you can find your karyotype by usually doing a blood test.

Blood Types

The Blood types are: O+,O-,A+,A-,B+,B-,AB+,AB-


Created with images by PublicDomainPictures - "blood vial analysis" • PublicDomainPictures - "sweet pea lathyrus dew" • ColiN00B - "dna dns biology" • Hans - "glasses read learn" • AdinaVoicu - "eye blue gene" • 955169 - "syringe hypodermic syringe apple" • Filter Forge - "Blood Cells" • new 1lluminati - "spiral tribe"

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