Growing Self Regulated Learning A Research Informed Inquiry Project

Ko te mokopuna te pūtake o te mātauranga
THE LEARNER AT THE HEART

INQUIRY OVERVIEW

This teaching as inquiry project seeks to address the findings from a recent literature review on Self Regulated Learning.

Ko te mokopuna te pūtake o te Mātauranga

The premise of the planned inquiry project "Ko te mokopuna te pūtake o te Mātauranga" will be that of improving self regulation through the implementation of a Te Whakaaro, Te Tipuranga, Te Puawaitanga (Think, Design, Create) inquiry framework.

learner at the heart

The framework will bring the use of cognitive strategies to the forefront and provide a personalised, flexible model of learning using technologies, based on the concepts of agile learning and improvement kata.

Project duration

The inquiry project will run throughout the whole of 2017. This is to allow for the use of a cognitive apprenticeship approach to the teaching of strategies for improving metacognition.

INQUIRY PARTICIPANTS

A group of Year 8 students will be chosen as the main participants for the inquiry into self regulated learning.

In the past many teachers have struggled with motivation and engagement levels with this cohort of learners.

This 12-13 age group was also chosen as the project will involve an element of collaboration as well as self evaluation using online social networking technologies. The age for using most social networking tools in New Zealand is 13 years.

Research informed inquiry

Topic - Self Regulated Learning

The purpose of the aforementioned literature review was to unpack the key factors affecting self regulated learning in order to understand how educators might work best with students in a culturally responsive manner, to guide and empower them to become highly self regulated learners; learners who control what they do and learn and how they learn best.

A summary of key findings about Self regulated learning from the literature review
  • There is a general agreement in the topic of self regulation that the key factors affecting self regulated learning are metacognition or the use of strategies, motivation and behaviour (Paris & Winograd, 2003; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1994; Bembenutty, Cleary & Kitsantas, 2013).
  • Self regulation involves an individual's ability to plan, monitor and evaluate his/her learning in order to improve.
  • Metacognition is crucial to the ability to self regulate as it oversees, regulates and directs a learner's internal discourse which in turn controls a learner's ability to self instruct, self monitor and self evaluate at various stages of the learning process (Efklides, 2009; Rajabi, 2012; Zimmerman, 1990).
  • Behaviour and motivation can be shaped by both adults and peers and are affected greatly by the quality of tasks provided by the teacher and the design of the curriculum. A cognitive apprenticeship approach in developing metacognitive abilities allows behaviours to become increasingly more regulated as a student matures and grows his/her understanding (Carneiro, Lefrere, Steffens & Underwood, 2011).
  • Advancements in technology and the social/ collaborative nature provided by web 2.0 tools allow the direction for future research on self regulated learning to move from domain specific studies into more pedagogical frameworks to support classroom applications of self regulated learning (Carneiro et al., 2011).
  • Research on technology based personalised (culturally inclusive) learning environments is a recent addition to the literature and their potential to support the growth of self regulated learning is encouraging (Carneiro et al., 2011).

Driving inquiry question

How might educators work best with students in a culturally responsive manner, to guide and empower them to become highly self regulated learners; learners who control what they do and learn and how they learn best?

subsidary questions
Focus: Motivation and behaviour
  • How can educators design learning activities which enhance the development of self regulated learning?
  • To what extent does a personalised approach to curriculum delivery affect a student's motivation and behaviour and therefore his/her ability to self regulate learning?
focus: MEtacognition
  • Does the explicit teaching of strategies through cognitive discussions and plenary activities have an impact on a student's ability to self regulate his/her learning?
  • Does the use of digital and collaborative tools throughout the learning process have an impact on a student's ability to self regulate his/her learning?

WHY IS AN INQUIRY ON SELF REGULATED LEARNING IMPORTANT?

Self regulated learning (SRL) skills are increasingly needed in society due to the constant state of change. As well as this, technological advancements, the rate and complexity of change is becoming faster than the ability of education policy makers and curriculum reviewers to anticipate and respond to change (Carneiro, Lefrere, Steffens, & Underwood, 2011). This has presented challenges to educators and requires a paradigm shift in how we view knowledge, the disciplines and learning. Gilbert (2005) describes the need for educators to to see the traditional disciplines, not as an end in themselves, but as resources for pursuing performativity and “in order to do this one needs both system level and meta level understandings” (Gilbert, 2005, p. 67).

Self Regulated Learning involves just this; processes “whereby learners systematically organise and direct their thoughts, feelings and actions to attain their goals” (Zimmerman, 1990, p.4) and perform tasks.

WHY IS AN INQUIRY ON SELF REGULATED LEARNING IMPORTANT?

TE KURA O MATAPIHI

Looking back to go forward

What has happened as a result of changes in teaching prior to this planned inquiry?

THE LEARNING INQUIRY
Husbands & Pearce (2012)

The Mindlab journey for me, from the outset, has been about unpacking the various elements of effective pedagogy in order to improve my teaching as well as student achievement. The research carried out by Husbands and Pearce (2012) on Effective Pedagogies has formed the backbone of my digital and collaborative innovations throughout the Mindlab course to date.

The two "mini inquiry"projects carried out thus far; my digital and collaborative innovation and my leadership 2 innovation have focused on the 21st century skills of "skilled communication" & "knowledge construction" and "ICT for Learning" respectively. As well as this, they have formed part of my LEARNING INQUIRY for this current research based teaching as inquiry project with a focus on the 21st century skill of "self regulated learning".

Husbands and Pearce (2012)

This current research informed inquiry cycle, focusing on Self Regulated Learning, is the next phase of my Mindlab journey and is a purposeful return to one of our longer term outcomes of developing a culturally inclusive inquiry model at Te Kura o Matapihi.

the community

looking back to go forward

What evidence do I have to help inform the planned inquiry project?

Previous engagement - kaiako

A kura survey carried out with the kaiako, at the beginning of 2016, used the SAMR model to categorise how we were using our mobile devices throughout the learning process. Only 37.5% of the kaiako thought that they used mobile devices to “transform” learning (either modification or redefinition). The ramifications of this finding was that if our kaiako were only using our technologies for lower level activities how could we expect our tamariki to be wanting to do more than just "consume" on their devices.

It was also significant for us to note that in this survey 70% of answers to Question 2 included youtube, music.al.y and playing games in their responses.

Both these findings were somewhat alarming and provided the initial pretext for the inquiry topics chosen for the various Mindlab projects as well as the focus for the development of tools and frameworks we would need to scaffold learning in these projects; all culminating in the current planned inquiry into self regulated learning.

My own anecdotal observations from my english classes also supported this. I reflected in my first two digital and collaborative assignments that; the children seem bored and switched off and just want to “consume” on their devices.

I had also noted that during my lessons that "The children do not have the thinking skills or strategies required to work through a problem, or work cooperatively. They just want “me” to spell a word for them or tell them the answer. Anything that requires a bit of effort means that they give up!"

Transitioning from the Focusing Inquiry to the Teaching Inquiry

going forward

What further advice, feedback can I use to help inform the planned inquiry and its ongoing development?

levels of community engagement

colleagues
tamariki
whānau

engagement with Colleagues

gaining feedback throughout all aspects of the project
The google + in house channel was set up in 2016 as an online professional learning community.

A Google + community will be used to encourage in-school community discussions and gather ongoing feedback and reflections about effective pedagogy in general, as well as feedback throughout the entire planned inquiry project. A small group of kaiako, including the Principal and DP have already been invited to participate in this community. These kaiako were identified in an earlier Mindlab Leadership project as "Early adopters". They will be involved in transitioning our kura inquiry model into schoolwide practice.

Currently, engagement has been sought with this kaiako group for feedback into the formation of the inquiry topic and question. A post was published online on December 12 asking for feedback.

engagement with tamariki

the data collection process
A Google + Channel "Digikids was set up in 2016 as a collaborative online portal for tamariki

A google survey will be used to gather baseline data from the student group at the start of the inquiry project with regards to students current views on curriculum, learning, motivation and engagement. It will be reopened at various stages throughout the project to gather timestamped data. The analysis of this survey will be used to inform

NB: The survey example above is not in its final form. Further feedback and input with regards to the survey design will be asked for from colleagues prior to the commencement of the inquiry.

A selection of problem solving tasks, involving creative and computational thinking in the form of word problems. computer apps/games and practical activities, will also be given to our student group. Initially, this will be used to gather baseline data around metacognitive awareness and abilities.

It will also be an ongoing data collection process where as each time the student completes a task s/he will be asked to reflect on the level of difficulty as well as his/her strategy use. The analysis of this data will be used to show the affects of using a cognitive apprenticeship approach to the development of metacognitive awareness and abilities.

Throughout the project the students will be asked to regularly reflect on their learning in relation to motivation and engagement levels. This will be via Google Classroom or the Google + community - uploaded video and written posts. There will also be an option to keep a learning journal in their individual google site.

The reflections will be analysed and collated to identify the extent to which a personalised approach to curriculum delivery affects a student's motivation and behaviour and therefore his/her ability to self regulate learning?

Whānau Engagement

Results from a parent survey carried out in August 2016 indicated how important Tikanga and Te Reo are for our community. The survey asked the parents to list the three most important things. The following words occurred the most and make up the top 15 responses: reo, whanaungatanga, tikanga, Māori confidence, learning, respect, engaged, values, ICT skills, motivated, achieve, self-esteem, attitudes and whānau.

kaupapa māori as a personalised learning approach

This whānau survey data, although not collected specifically for this project, influenced the design of the inquiry and reiterated the importance of including the development of a personalised approach to curriculum within this inquiry project.

going forward

What strategies are most likely to support the implementation of this inquiry and help the students learn?

Kaupapa Māori Approach

Think design create & Te Uā Kowhai Model

The links between our Kura Inquiry Model: Think, Design Create and Te Uā Kowhai are deliberate and link learning and learners to Kaupapa Māori.

THINK | What is powerful to learn about? | Te KĀKANO

  • In order for the seed to germinate it must be in good soil with the the right conditions to start growing.
  • The conception of ideas that have their roots grounded in Papatūānuku.
  • Kaupapa is inherited through our tūpuna.

DESIGN | What is powerful learning? | TE TUPU

  • The seed waits for the right conditions to germinate.
  • A concentration of energy draws the roots outwards and growth begins.

CREATE: TE PUĀWAITANGA & TE HAUMOKO

  • The flowers grow and the pollen is shared.
  • Flowers drop, seed pods develop, dry out and split open and drop to Papatūānuku.
  • The life cycle begins again bringing together what we have learned in order to conceptualise new learning that informs future directions.

focus: metacognition

Inquiry Question: Does the use of digital and collaborative tools throughout the learning process have an impact on a student's ability to self regulate his/her learning?

Teaching and Learning Strategies
  • Provide students with opportunities for feedback / feedforward and reflection cycles through the use of technologies: Google Classroom, Google + and other social networks.
  • Students will collaborate online to build knowledge and understandings and reflect on their learning.
  • Students will use digital tools, such as google docs to self and peer assess learning.

focus: Metacognition

Inquiry Question: Does the explicit teaching of strategies through cognitive discussions and plenary activities have an impact on a student's ability to self regulate his/her learning?

"Educators need to move away from delivering curricula or managing classroom behaviour to fostering strategic and motivated students" (Paris and Winograd, 2003; Gilbert, 2005)

the inquiry Framework & metacognition
Te Whakaaro, Te Tipuranga, Te Puawaitanga" (Think, Design, Create) inquiry framework

The "Te Whakaaro, Te Tipuranga, Te Puawaitanga" (Think, Design, Create) inquiry framework utilises a metaphorical thinking framework based on Ned Herrmann's Whole Brain Model (1995). The Herrmann model relates thinking directly to the physical anatomy and physiology of the brain, e.g. the left & right hemispheres.

The Integral Learning Model

The integral model by Julia Atkin (2000) takes this one step further and is based on the premise that we all have preferred thinking styles and ways of approaching tasks. In the education context these relate to the use of different thinking strategies and tools and understanding when and what type of processing to apply at certain stages in a task.

The art of being an effective learner and ’doer’ is having the ability to draw on the appropriate mode for the task. The art of being an effective teacher is to engage the learner in the appropriate thinking mode(s) for the task (Atkin, 2000).

Integral Learning (Atkin, 2000)
teaching and learning strategies
  • 10 mins per lesson will be set aside for explicit cognitive discussions and/or plenary activities in order to grow metacognitive awareness and abilities. These could be whole class, group or individual contexts. Cognitive discussion topics could be based around: The Integral Learning Model as well as other thinking scaffolds, e.g. Habits of Mind, 6 Thinking Hats etc.
  • Designated times set aside for learning activities based around problem solving tasks, involving creative and computational thinking in the form of word problems, computer apps/games and practical activities. (as referenced in the data gathering section)
An example of a Problem Solving Task using the Everything Machine App Design a Wind Thrower, Design a Picture Swirler etc.

focus: Motivation and Behaviour

Inquiry Question: To what extent does a personalised approach to curriculum delivery affect a student's motivation and behaviour and therefore his/her ability to self regulate learning?

A cooking show requested, planned and filmed by the tamariki as a performance outcome from an inquiry into Kaitiakitanga.

If pedagogy is culturally relevant, then it will meet the needs of the learner, their personal interests, learning styles, motiaviton and learning objectives ( Halm 2006, as cited in Carneiro et al., 2011).

teaching and learning strategies
  • Students will have the opportunity once a week to think, design and create their own learning. This will be done through a personalised (Kaupapa Maori ) approach to curriculum using the guiding principals of the "Genius Hour".
  • Opportunities for students to think, design and create their own learning will be iterative and agile in their design, promoting knowledge building and reflective learning cycles to improve learning.
An agile learning sequence showing iterative knowledge building cycles

focus: Motivation and behaviour

Inquiry Question: How can educators design learning activities which enhance the development of self regulated learning?

"The role of the teacher is to guide and coach students and to provide criteria for self evaluation" (Carneiro et al., 2011).

teaching and learning strategies
  • Students will use a Kanban style of plan to improve their ability to self regulate their learning.
  • Provide opportunities within both English and Genius Hour for students to use self management, self appraisal and self regulation tools to plan and design their next steps in learning.
Examples of organisers and plans designed to scaffold the development of self regulation.
transitioning from the teaching inquiry to the learning inquiry

looking back to go forward

What has happened as a result of the changes in teaching and what are the implications for future teaching?

KO TE MOKOPUNA TE PŪTAKE O TE MĀTAURANGA

Driving Inquiry Question: How might educators work best with students in a culturally responsive manner, to guide and empower them to become highly self regulated learners; learners who control what they do and learn and how they learn best?

data analysis and summative evaluation
  • Compile and analyse data collected throughout the inquiry process from Google Surveys, problem solving activities and Student reflections to identify any changes in students' metacognitive awareness, motivation and engagement
  • Resurvey participant group with the baseline data survey to capture any potential changes in student views on curriculum, learning, motivation and engagement.

Share and present findings with participants, Kaiako and Whanau groups.

Reference List

Bembenutty, H., Cleary, T. J., & Kitsantas, A. (Eds.). (2013). Applications of self-regulated learning across diverse disciplines: A tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman. Information Age Publishing.

Carneiro, R., Lefrere, P., Steffens, K., & Underwood, J. (Eds.). (2011). Self-regulated learning in technology enhanced learning environments (Vol. 5). Springer Science & Business Media

Efklides, A. (2009). The role of metacognitive experiences in the learning process. Psicothema, 21(1), 76-82.

Gilbert, J. (2005). Catching the knowledge wave?: The knowledge society and the future of education. Wellington: Nzcer Press.

ITL Research and Microsoft Partners in Learning. (2012). ITL 21st century learning rubrics. Retrieved from http://www.itlresearch.com/images/stories/reports/21cld%20learning%20activity%20rubrics%202012.pdf

Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (2003). The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Contextual Teaching: Principles and Practices for Teacher Preparation.

Rajabi, S. (2012). Towards self-regulated learning in school curriculum. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 344-350.

Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1994). Self-regulation of learning and performance: Issues and educational applications. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational psychologist, 25(1), 3-17.

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