La Historia de España Heather Banas - 8Corazones

Why Did Everyone Want Spain?

Why wouldn't you quieres Spain? Spain is called the Ancient Pit Stop. It is a great place to refuel, trade, stop, and pause to repair damage to your ships. As people pasado through they started realizing how great this plot of land actually was. But after everyone realized, everyone wanted it. Spain was a volatile place and an area of unrest for 700 years.

The First to INvade

The Celtics were the first to invade Spain. They were actually a very nice group of people. They took over the western half of Spain.

Los siguientes grupos a invadir

The next group of people to invade were the Iberos. This group of people took the Eastern half of Spain. Soon these two groups had that AH-HA moment and thought: Why don't we just live together and take the benefits? After the Iberos, the Celtiberos invaded. This group was the first to construir a civilization and take over the land. The Iberian Peninsula's name comes from this group. Galicia still has influences of the Celtiberos culture such as the language and the use of bagpipes.

The romans are coming!

Next the Romans invade Spain. The Roman Empire is constantly expanding. They are extremely powerful and there is no resistance. Once they got to Spain they took it over and delicado everyone they saw.

Las Sobras de los Romanos

The Romans left because they were out of resources. They left behind many ancient artifacts and building that are still there today. Some examples are an aqueduct in Segovia and there is evidence of gladiatorial battles at Merida.

more groups invade

The next group to invade Spain was the Visigoths. The Visigoths used the same tactics as the Romans, kill, robar, and pillage. The next group was the Moors. In 711 A.D. the Arabs, Berbers, and Syrians invaded the peninsula from North Africa. These groups left Africa for Spain. They didn't invade Spain, they fueron using Spain as an escape. These groups were religiously and culturally persecuted in Africa. It was easy for them to conquer nearly all of the peninsula from the Visigoths.

La reconquista

This was almost continual fighting in the peninsula between Christian kingdoms (the north) and Muslim kingdoms (the south). This was a war of words. If you were not killed, you would most likely go back home and continue practicing your religion. Many people became fake Christians just so they wouldn't be killed.

Some of the biggest role models promoted the killing of Muslims. Santiago "matamoros" is the patron saint of Spain. He was one of the people who promoted killing Muslims. He let everyone know it was okay.

Toledo: La ciudad de la tolerancia

Three religions dominated this city at the same time. The three religions in this city was Christianity, Jewish, and Islamic. The influence of these three religions are still evident there today. For example, there are still synagogues, churches/cathedrals, and mudejars.

El cid: Hero of la Reconquista

The Moors dividido into many smaller kingdoms. They tried to keep as much control as possible. The Last Moorish king was defeated in Granada, in January 1492.

Reyes Catolicos

The Muslims are now gone. Fernando of Aragon and Isabella of Castilla are married in 1469. They unido the Christians and the Moors. They also solidified their power through religion and military success. They terminado the reconquista in 1492 by defeating the Moors in Granada.

the Español inquisición

In 1492 the last Moorish king was defeated. Now what happens to all the Muslims? They are forced to leave or convert to Christianity. How did they know these Muslims have truly converted? They ponen them on trial, interrogated them, tortured them, and later executed or burned them. Three popes were in power while this was going on. Those popes were Tomas de Torquemada, Pope Sixtus IV, and Pope Innocent IV.

Buscadores de Oro

Back in the time of the Spanish Inquisition many people were gold diggers. What es a gold digger? A gold digger is someone who married someone just for their money or wealth. They used the power and wealth to get and use whatever they wanted. Fernando and Isabel's daughter, Juana, married Felipe (el Hermoso) of the powerful Habsburg family. The Habsburg family ruled over Spain for a long time. Juana became mentally ill and she became known as la loca (crazy). Legend has it when Felipe died, she carried his coffin through the streets of Granada, stopping often to kiss the corpse of the dead king

the habsburg kings

Carlos I

He is the son of Juana La Loca and Felipe el Hermoso. He ruled from 1516 until 1556. He was a Holy Roman Emperor. Under his rule the Spanish Empire grew rapidly. Gold, silver, potatoes, corn and fruits flooded into Spain from the Americas. Word tiene out and he got a reputation for taking over more and more places, so he changed his name to Charles V. Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to subsidize the many religious wars he was fighting across Europe. Spain under Carlos V convirtió one of the staunchest defenders of Catholicism, as it fought to stop the spread of the Protestant Reformation across Europe. He passed on his legacy to his successor, his son Felipe.

Felipe II

He continuado wars against provinces. In 1554 , marries Mary Tudor of England in an arrest to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, however, there was no son and the protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England. Soon he annexed Portugal and the Dutch declare independence from Spain. This starts a war involving England. In 1588 Spain's invincible armada is defeated by England.

La Leyenda Negra

This was propaganda to convince people not to travel to Spain. It told people false information about Spain. Some people called it the sewer of the world. Some of the false information made people fearful of even going near Spain. They dijo that the kings and queens comió children.

El greco

He was a painter from Greece. His real name was Domenikos Theotokopoulos. He viajado to Spain in search of work in the decoration of El Escorial. Felipe II hated his style and refused to let him paint it. El Greco moved to Toledo and hits the big time.

more habsburg kings

Felipe II is succeeded by his son, the aptly named Felipe III who ruled from 1598-1621. Felipe III dies and his son toma the throne. Felipe IV reigns from 1621-1665. Felipe IV reigns over one of the richest cultural periods in Spanish history: the Siglo de Oro.

Siglo de Oro

This period in history is all about literature, art, and drama. Many new works salieron during this time period. Some examples are La vida es sueño by Pedro Calderon de la Barca, Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, and the character of Don Juan which introduced the image of the “Latin Lover”.

The end of the habsburg Rule

Felipe IV's son, Carlos II is known as “ El Hechizado” (the bewitched). He died in 1700, leaving no heir to ascend to the throne of Spain.

guerra!

War of Spanish Succession pinned royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain. The war ends in 1713, with Spain losing Gibraltar to the English. Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon family remains the royal family of Spain today.

The Bourbons

Competent rulers, but more concerned with life at court. Efforts to convert Spain into a modern state, based on Neoclassical ideas of the Enlightenment.

Charles IV

Grandson of Felipe V who is the son of Carlos III. He has total incompetence. Dealing with Napoleon leads to use of lots of DYNAMITE!

more war!!

Rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid begins War of Spanish Independence. Joseph Bonaparte removed from throne of Spain in 1812. During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gain independence. The constitution of 1812 establece a parliamentary monarchy.

Ferdinand VII

Son of Carlos IV, returns from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon’s troops. Totalitarian rule was constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812. He died in 1833, without a male heir, leaving only a daughter, Isabel. The country is divided on the issue of a woman ruler. Supporters of Fernando’s brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “guerras Carlistas”.

More Bourbons

Isabel II rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority. The “Glorious Revolution” removes Isabel II from power in 1868. A short-lived experiment places King Amadeo de Saboya, an Italian, on the throne from 1870-1873. The First Spanish Republic is proclaimed in 1873, but ends in 1874.

de nuevo...

The bourbons return to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII from 1875-1885, followed by his son Alfonso XIII from 1902-1931. Alfonso XIII was born in 1885 (shortly after his father’s death) his mother oversaw the government as his regent in the interim. In typical Bourbon fashion, Spain quickly begins a downslide, marked by the loss of it last remaining colonies in 1898 and embarrassing military defeats in Morocco.

Alfonso Xii

Unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country, Alfonso XIII permite a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923 - 1931. The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country. In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try.

La segunda república de españa

The Second Republic of Spain was established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism. They set up a new, progressive constitution, which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from the State, and creates public schools.

Una división más profunda

The new government creó an even deeper political and social divide. The military, the Church and the upper classes think there are too many changes going on. Socialists and communist factions think there are not enough changes and want more change faster

civil war!!!

General Francisco etapas a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War. He doesn't like the way the government is happening/working. Republican forces get very little help. War ends in 1939, with Franco's Nationalist forces winning.

FRANCISCO franco

Fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. Idealized “glory years” of Spain under carlos V and Felipe II. Gender roles, religion, regionalism banned, censorship. Exile of artists, intellectuals, scientists

Una vez más, wait what???

Basque terrorists group, ETA, assassinates Franco’s chosen successor. Franco chooses grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over. Upon Franco’s death in 1975, Juan Carlos I de Borbon becomes King of Spain. Instead of continuing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain. He names Adolfo Suarez as first Prime Minister. Suarez begins the period known as the Transition.

Democracia

In 1978, Suarez is elected in the first elections held in Spain since 1936. In 80’s Felipe Gonzalez leads Spain out of isolation, joining NATO and the EU. Jose Maria Aznar increases Spain’s influence in the world, with a growing economy and strong alliance with the USA.

11-M

On March 11, 2004 Islamic fundamentalists terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000.

Una nueva dirección

Two days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action, as promised, was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. Under his government, Spain joined several other European nations in legalizing same-gender marriage. He won re-election in 2008.

La Familia Real

As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retiene its royal family (continues to be passed down today), although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.

Credits:

Created with images by Jo@net - "Girona's facade" • nathanh100 - "Flag of Spain, Undated" • xabeldiz - "DSCF2898" • Miguel. (respenda) - "Gotor. Zaragoza." • Miguel. (respenda) - "San Pedro Manrique. Soria." • pablocabezos - "Arena del Anfiteatro de Segobriga" • kirkandmimi - "rome monument colosseum" • pedrosimoes7 - "The Óbidos' Castle" • EME - "knight ritterruestung armor" • vishal charles - "Church" • PaulCosmin - "synagogue orthodox oradea" • uroburos - "sevilla children's spanish maria luisa park" • Biblioteca Rector Machado y Nuñez - ""El Cid"" • CrossReach_Publications - "church catholic roman" • http://klarititemplateshop.com/ - "Spanish Inquisition, Plaza Mayor, Madrid" • pedrosimoes7 - "Untitled (c.1924) - José de Almada Negreiros (1893-1970)" • jl.cernadas - "3153-Alonso Berruguete na entrada do Museo Arqueoloxico Nacional en Madrid" • hahatango - "landfill" • wuestenigel - "Pinsel mit roter Farbe" • Moyan_Brenn - "War" • PublicDomainPictures - "prague detail history" • Arcaion - "the military infantry the army" • Bitterjug - "Kings Glint" • ulleo - "statue stone king" • Cairomoon - "marienberg sage dwarf" • chrisjmit - "statue alfred king alfred" • DUrban - "gettysburg pennsylvania battlefield" • ClassicallyPrinted - "american flag american flag" • laszlovirag0 - "statue stephen king st stephen's" • Extra Zebra - "Train" • shurik - "nuclear atom bomb" • fotshot - "dunrobin castle architecture"

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