In this life book, it will include the development and challenges which Zuberi’s met over his life span. It will also include biological, psychological, social and cultural influences and how individuals can adjust, change and challenge these and the influences which develop or modify behaviours. The book will include a range of theorist and theories, which are the Nature VS Nurture debate, Stage VS Open-Ended theory, Continuity VS Discontinuity theory, Static VS Dynamic theory and Nomothetic VS Idiographic approach.

NATURE VS NURTURE- Nature is suggested to be influenced by genetics, traits and other biological factors. Nurture is the influence of external factors (McLeod, 2007).

STAGE VS OPEN-ENDED THEORY- Stage Theory suggests that development is unique to each individual, and development that takes place builds from the previous stage (Sigelman and Rider, 2014). Open-ended Theory suggests individual inherency is different and is the reason behaviours differ (Bergen, 2007).

CONTINUITY VS DISCONTINUITY THEORY- Discontinuous Theory suggests development is discontinuous and involves distinct stages (Sigelman and Rider, 2014). Continuity suggests there is no distinct stages and development happens from the previous stage.

STATIC VS DYNAMIC THEORY- Static development outlines development. For example, all children should walk by a particular age. Dynamic suggests that children will develop differently, at their own speed (Bergen, 2007).

NOMOTHETIC VS IDIOGRAPHIC- Nomothetic Approach suggests human development should concentrate on individuality. Idiographic Approach is the development of the psychological process (McLeod, 2007).


Conception and fertilization happens within 24 hours once the sperm has reached the ovum. Although, two or more ovum’s can be fertilized which can lead to twins or triplets. The sperm competes to the egg, after entering the sperm develops into blastocyst and enters the womb. The human embryo is attached to the uterus, the brain and heartbeat develops. At 5 weeks the face will become distinguished and the placenta forms and joins the embryo to the uterine wall allowing the nutrients, waste and gas from the woman. The embryo is protected by foetal sack, at 18 weeks sounds can be heard and features are visible. Lanugo covers the head, at 6 months preparation to leave the uterus happens until birth (WebMD, 2017).

Zuberi parents have been married for over 20 years, Zuberi is the only child and was born 3th December 1957 in Kenya and suffered prematurity as his mother wasn’t able to consume the nutrients needed as she ate fruit and vegetables from the stall, which she ran at the end of the village. During this time she lacked in sleep, struggled with anxiety and his father was an athlete before suffering with Arthritis.

Continuity VS Discontinuity theory relates to this stage, the Discontinuous side would say that development from contraception to birth is continuous and there isn’t any defined stages. Continuity would say that from contraception to birth is staged as birth cannot happen without contraception.


A Neonatal Assessment is important, it checks for abnormalities by body colour, heart rate, reflexes, activity and breathing. It shows if the baby is in good health, requires help or is in a life threating situation and looks at birth weight, sleeping patterns and sets milestones which should be reached. Physical growth in infancy is apparent but other changes will not be. For example, cognitive, social and emotional development. Infants develop trust with caregivers, if they have reliability, care, and attention. Emotional development will occur as the child will start to smile when they are happy or see caregivers (Freeborn, 2017).

Zuberi suffered bad breathing, high risk of catching infections and had a low immune system. The environment influenced behaviour as it was easy and convenient to eat fruit and vegetables and she didn’t have the knowledge or facilities to visit to help with anxiety. Her family background influenced this as she had a strong work ethic while being terminally ill, like her mother.

The Nature VS Nurture debate relates to prematurity. Nature suggests that genetics and other family members may have been premature. Nurture side believes that the mother’s environment caused Zuberi to be premature as she lacked dietary needs. This challenge could on both sides of the debates as it may be unknown trait but be effected from the environment.

1957 was the year of independence and his parents decided to name their son “Zuberi” which means “powerful”. This behaviour could be influenced by culture as they named their first boy child with his Grandfathers name.

Zuberi was classed as underweight on Neonate’s Heath chart, but this challenge would have been unnoticed. Being underweight brought other challenges, lack of physical growth and meeting milestones late. He was quick to develop a sense of trust with his parent and built relationships in the community (Alchin, 2004).


Children start to develop motor skills, at the age of 2 will be able to jump, hop and throw, by the age of 6 be able to behave according to society and will be able to copy numbers, use a knife and folk and recognise body parts. In late childhood physical growth is apparent, motor skills will continue developing. Thoughts and feelings become organised, a sense of social comparison will occur and to understand their strengths, weaknesses and emotions. (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015).

Zuberi parents were determined for him to strive within education, this behaviour influenced by historical context of themselves as they didn’t have this opportunity. By 1959 there were 3 universities and a handful of primary schools, at the age of 6 he started school in Tula 7 miles from home. He first began to show his running potential in school, racing in the national races. At 11 he became the school's fastest runner, while he wasn’t at school Zuberi, spent time racing children and helping his parents. This behaviour influenced by traits or genetics as his father shared similar passion in running.

Zuberi was constantly developing, he started behave according to society and had developed motor skills, this enabled him to read, write, understand feelings, emotions and make his own decisions. This behaviour influenced by his education and socialization as he’s gained skills and knowledge.

The Static vs Dynamic theory puts this stage in the middle of the debate. The Static suggests that Zuberi should have met milestone, but this wasn’t the case due to challenges. Dynamic would argue that Zuberi is individual and every child develops differently.


The stage from childhood to adulthood, involves puberty. Physical changes involve primary and secondary sex characteristics (the reproduction system and hormones). Boys will experience spermarche, girls will experience menstrual periods. Physiological and behavioural differences will continue because of pressure of gender roles. Logical and ideal thinking will occur, cognitive processes can be applied to experiences. Emotional and social development can cause challenges and sexual relationships form (American Academy of Paediatrics, 2015).

Zuberi continued focusing on athletics and was aware of his ability. In 1988 he won his first annual school championships medal and he was assigned a coach to push his ability and set training. He would start to produce sex characteristics, understand his own needs and emotions. Zuberi faced challenges as he started to form anxiety and depression.

The Nomothetic VS Idiographic approach, relates to adolescence. Nomothetic suggests that development concentrates on individuality. Idiographic requires the development of psychological process. Zuberi’s psychological process will develop and his passion for running is individual to him.


Physical growth stops, cognitive development will be harder to adapt, emotional and social development will be at its peak and identity and roles will be understood. Loving, caring and intimate importance of relationships and there value will be apparent. Success will lead to strong relationship and settlement, unsuccessfulness results in isolation, loneliness and depression. Towards the end of this stage individuals will start to look back on achievements (Stewart, 2013).

Winning multiple medals Zuberi was offered to move to London to start a professional career, which he’d compete for a place in the Olympics. Although, this was his dream he worried about his parent’s health, his father gave up the stall to look after his mother who had Malaria. His family were determined that Zuberi become an Olympic winner. He trained every day to better himself and ensured to give his parents a better life but his mother passed away 6 months before he became a gold medallist. Zuberi decided to retire from his running career, as she was one of his biggest supporters, from this he moved his father to London. Towards the end of this stage he married and had 2 children. He would have recognition of important relationships and he will start continue to look back on his career.

The Stage vs Open-Ended theory relates to adulthood. Stage suggests development is unique so he may start to look back on his career later than others. Open-Ended believes inherency differs and this is why his behaviour in this life stage is unlike others.


Men and women may both have midlife crises, and the loss of self-confidence and feeling of anxiety or disappointment will occur. Women will experience menopause which makes the women infertile.

Zuberi was blessed with his first grandchild, but faced the loss of his father. He continued to understand his self-identity and felt settlement and success. He socialises regularly and focuses on being independent with lack of mobility.


Mobility will decrease, immune system will become weaker and the loss of appetite. Sleep becomes disturbed and depression and anxiety occur due to the loss of others and their independence. A lack of socialisation, memory and cognitive will decline. The withdrawal from the world, letting go and saying goodbye will take place in this stage.

Zuberi is not in his final stages of life, but he has plans how he wants to spend time with his family, friends and plans to watch the Olympics every year. He’s set up a charity which helps people in Africa, who suffer or are caring for people with illnesses, on behalf of his mother. Zuberi’s built schools and created athletic groups which encourages children to play sport and become educated, although he has no mobility and continues to have bad breathing.


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