Machu Picchu By: madison, tyler, sydni, valen

INTRODUCTION TO MACHU PICCHU

Machu Picchu was built in the 15th century and later abandoned. It is set high in the Andes Mountains in Peru, above the Urubamba River valley. The construction of Machu Picchu began when the Incas´s territory started to grow. According to archaeologists, in this area was fought the last battle that defined victory over the Chancas, covering prestigious victory and gave power to the Inca Pachacutec. Machu Picchu is a Quechua word that comes from “Machu” that means old or ancient, and “Picchu” means Mountain, so the combined meaning means “Old Mountain.”

Machu Picchu Culture

Religion

They believed in many Gods. Like, "Viracocha" the creator of the sun, and the moon and stars. They worshipped "Viracocha" , and "Into" (Viracocha's wife) was most respected. They also thought constellations were duties they needed to fulfill by the Gods. Also, each month is meant for a type of festival and celebrations. Like, December they celebrate the Magnificent Festival.

fashion

When the emperor wore clothes he only wore the cloth once. After he wore it, it was burned. He also wore a headdress with gold, and his coat would be covered with jewels. Women normally wore a one piece dress which is a blouse and a skirt combined. That reached to their ankles.

Men usually wore a sleeveless shirt, they had a large coat that covered the shoulders. It allowed them to move freely and work easier. They also used different types of face and body paint. For war they used war paints. Normally in the higher parts of land they wore warmer clothes. They wore warmer clothes by the coasts.

Social Structure

On the top of the social structure was the Sapa Inca (The ruler/emperor). Next, were the royals (Sons, the Wife, first generation of royal relatives). Then, the nobles (Royal relatives, they who achieved education and training fields). Finally, the Ayllu (the general people, servers, prisoners, and new people).

Art

A Terrance

Some of Machu Picchu's art involves carefully fitting individual stones against each other. Terraces were a common element of art. They increased the land surface and reduced erosion. They are also used to create walled steps down the sides of steep mountains. It represented the relationship with the earth, and expressions of belief in a landscape inhabited by supernatural forces.

LAw and Government

Machu Picchu became a very powerful nation in Pre-Columbian Nation. The Inca government promoted peace among citizens. Since they enforced this, there was very little crimes committed. If there was a crime committed the punishment was ruthless. The Government didn’t have any kind of imprisonment, so the people who committed crimes were punished. The Government gave punishments like the death penalty, or mutilation which was were they inflicted severe pain of the person. Machu Picchu had a Monarchy, because they had a emperor. The Monarchy was ruled by Emperor Sapa Inca. They also had a federal system, and they had four quarters. People also had to pay taxes to the Government.

Food

Herds

The people of Machu Picchu consisted of a vegetarian diet. They would occasionally eat meat and seafood. For their food supply they developed farming systems. Where they grew crops and raised herds of animals. They grew things like peppers, tomatoes, peanuts, squash, cucumber, and cotton. Some of the foods they made were, Cuy which is a type of guinea pig, Ceviche a seafood dish, Causa a seasoned mashed potato terrine, stuffed with tuna, egg, shrimp, or avocado, Lomo Saltado a stir fry that typically combines marinated strips of sirloin.

entertainment

For entertainment they would had fine arts. They would make art which gave them something to do. In Machu Picchu they also had many sites. They also all had many jobs, like farming and helping out with the civilization.

Literature

In ancient Machu Picchu the language they used was called Quechua. It is known that ancient failed at having a written language, so they couldn't keep any history. That made it hard to remember any of Ancient Machu Picchu’s history.

Ancient Machu Picchu City Layout

Machu Picchu is a well laid out and spread out area. There are trails leading up the mountain and lots of area to farm. Also, for places to keep their herds. It’s well spaced out and houses are along the mountain side and on flat ground. There valuable structures were also well spaced and placed good throughout the civilization.

City Layout

Important Buildings/Structures

Temple of the sun

It provided protection to the city and security. One of the most important buildings is placed inside of the temple. The most important events were held in the temple. Like sacred rituals and religious sacrifices. It was built on a big granite rock. Under the temple there is a cavern which held mummified corpses.

The sacred plaza

It was surrounded by the most important structures. The sacred Plaza was the main architectural joint for Machu Picchu because of its location. It was for the practice of the different beliefs of the culture in an infinite number of fields such as astronomy, geology, mathematics, physics and other many other scientific disciplines.

The main temple

It is located at the highest point of the city. It housed the most important celebrations and the sacred rituals of greater spiritual significance for the city. It was formed around the sacred plaza. The main temple also held residence for the Priest. The main temple had the most spiritual meaning. Most of of the spiritual rituals were held here.

Sources

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