the casing of the camera protects the parts inside. It prevents light from damaging the film
The camera shutter(inside the lens) allows light to pass for a determined period of time. It also doesn't let light in
The camera lens redirects beams of light and allows the camera to store a photo
The flash circuit(top left) makes a short flash of bright light .
the gas discharge tube is a tube filled with xenon gas that's purpose is to conduct an electrical charge.