The Endomembrane System Jasmine Hambaro

The Endomembrane system is the group of membranes and organelles within a eukaryotic cell that work together and individually in order to ensure the proper functioning of the cell
The nucleus

Structure

The nucleus has its own membrane called the "nuclear envelope". The nuclear envelope is porous allowing RNA and proteins to enter the nucleus while keeping all of the chromatin and nucleolus inside

Function

The nucleus is responsible for the regulation of genetic material and facilitation of dna replication

Exclusive to any organisms?

Only Eukaryotic cells have a "true Nucleus" that keeps genetic material contained in one specific area

abundant in what instances?

striated muscle cells contain multiple nuclei because an individual muscle fiber is a result of the joining of many myoblasts (which each have their own nucleus)

Associated diseases

any diseases that directly impacted genetic material in the affected person is a disease associated to a malfunctioning nucleus. there are many diseases and syndromes linked to genetic mutations and chromosomal imbalances

cool fact :)

the cell nucleus was the very first organelle discovered and identified by scientists
Ribosomes

Structure

Ribosomes can be found either floating freely in the cytoplasm of a cell or they can be found attached (bound) to the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes consist of two major parts: a small subunit, which reads chains of rna, and a large subunit, which joins groups of amino acids to form polypeptide chains

Function

Ribosomes are responsible for the translation of rna into amino acids and protein synthesis within the cell

Exclusive to any organisms?

Ribosomes are vital to all organisms because they produce proteins that are essential for all chemical reactions of life
without ribosomes, organisms would lack individuality as proteins build complexity in living systems
Ribosomes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes

abundant in what instances?

cells of the pancreas contain many ribosomes because the organ is responsible for producing an abundant amount of a protein called insulin

Associated diseases

any disease resulting from a faulty protein is ribosome related. Sickle cell disease, for example, is a cause of a mistake made in an amnio acid chain during protein synthesis

whoaaaaa

ribosome is an oddball among most organelles because it does not have a protective membrane surrounding it
Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Structure

The rough er is composed of many folded layers of membrane ensuring a high surface area crucial for the production of proteins and lipids
the rough er is heavily coated with bound ribosomes that aid it in the reading and translating of rna and dna into specific amino acid chains and then proteins

Function

the rough er works closely with the nucleus to construct the necessary proteins for the cell
the bound ribosomes of the rough er translate rna and create sequences of amino acid chains
Relationship between ribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum

exclusive to any organisms?

Rough endoplasmic reticulum will be found only in eukaryotic animal and plant cells as they are necessary for protein production in those cell systems
Microscope image of rough endoplasmic reticulum in animal cell

Abundant in what instances?

rough endoplasmic reticulum is abundant in cells of the pancreas as the pancreas is responsible for producing mass amounts of the protein insulin
Abundant ER in a pancreatic cell

Associated disease

Parkinson's disease has recently been linked to an overly stressed endoplasmic reticulum. the stress induces cell death and may cause degeneration of groups of cells. faulty er's can be linked to many neurodegenerative disorders as well

coollllll

the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus are pals and work together closely to export crucial items in the cell
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Structure

the smooth er is similar to the rough er in the way that it is composed of many folds of membrane however, smooth er is referred to as "smooth" because it lacks bound ribosomes

function

the smooth endoplasmic reticulum handles the synthesis of lipids. It works as the factory of the cell that produces necessary lipids such as cholesterol and steroids

exclusive to any organisms?

just like the rough er, smooth er is only present in both eukaryotic animal and plant cells

abundant in what instances?

cells that require the production of massive amounts of lipids contain much smooth er. Endocrine cells have an abundance of smooth er as they have to produce a lot of cholesterol and steroid hormones

Associated diseases

Rough er and smooth er mutations impact the cell equally. when it comes to relationships between disease and mutations of er, the rough and smooth are concerned as a joint entity

thats pretty cool

smooth er contain lots and lots of cool enzymes that allow it to synthesize lipids so well
Golgi apparatus

Structure

the golgi apparatus is composed of layered stack of membrane sacs, referred to as cisternae

function

the golgi apparatus takes care of the modification, sorting and packaging of necessary macromolecules for the cell or secretion

exclusive to any organisms?

you will only find the golgi apparatus in eukaryotic plant and animal cells

abundant in what instances?

secretary cells have an abundant amount of golgi apparatus, these types of cells would include the cells lining the trachea that need to create a lot of mucus

associated diseases

a malfunctioning golgi apparatus has similar effects on a cell as a malfunctioning endoplasmic reticulum. this is why an odd gold apparatus has also been linked to parkinson's disease and other neurodegenrative diseases
Normal Golgi VS Malfunctioning Golgi

a cool fact

the organeelle was named after a cool guy named, camilla golgi, the scientist who discovered it in 1897
Mitochondria

Structure

the mitochondria is composed of two membranes: the outer membrane which covers and protects the organelle and the inner membrane that creates the many folds and layers visible in mitochondria

function

mitochondria are mainly responsible for providing their cell with energy. simple molecules combine with oxygen in the organelle to produce atp

exclusive to any organisms?

all eukaryotic organisms contain mitochondria and prokaryotic cells produce energy for themselves through other means

abundant in what instances?

muscle cells contain many mitochondria because it is necessary for them to have enough energy to react quickly and propel the body

associated diseases

Mitochondrial disease is a very rare disease that is a direct result of malfunctioning mitochondria. This means that the body's cells are not provided with sufficient supplies of energy

weird

The organelle has become a meme on the internet, constantly jokingly referred to as "the powerhouse of the cell" for no apparent reason
Chloroplast

structure

the chloroplast consists of two membranes which act together to protect and contain the organelle. inside exits a substance called stroma which makes of much of its volume. thylakoid membranes stack up to create small structures inside the stroma

function

chloroplast is the main center of photosynthesis in plant cells. they receive solar energy and convert it into usable energy for the cell

exclusive to any organisms?

plant cells and some protists contain chloroplast within the cell because photosynthesis is necessary for its survival

abundant in what instances?

the cells within the leaves of plants contain the most choloroplast as they are most exposed to receive energy from the sun

associated diseases

no related animal diseases because chloroplasts only exist among plant cells however, malfunctioning chloroplast will lead to immediate plant cell death as it will fail to carry out photosynthesis

wow wow wow

this organelle is wicked special because it has two membranes protecting it instead of one like most organelles!
Flagellum

structure

a flagellum simply looks like a whip or tail attached to the outside of the cell

function

flagellum provides mobility for cells such as bacterium

exclusive to any organisms?

flagellum is most commonly found on bacteria cells as they require it for movement however, eukaryotic plant and animals cells may have flagellum as well if they require it for any specific reason

abundant in what instances?

sperm cells have a vital need for flagellum as their main purpose is to travel to an egg in order to fertilize it

associated diseases

Malfunctioning flagellum can be linked to bacterial diseases because it plays a huge role in bacterial adhesion and the bacterias ability to invade host cells

another fact

bacteria are like cool little tails if you really think about it and bacteria would not be able to move at all without them
Cillia

structure

cilia are thin, hair-like structures that coat and extend from the surface of cells

function

cillia are crucial for the replication and development of cells but also serve the purpose of creating a current to direct fluid or substances. cilia also act as signaling organelles

exclusive to any organisms?

cilia can be found on most (but not all!) eukaryotic cells and will not be found on prokaryotic cells

abundant in what instances?

cilia can be abundant in group of cells that line the inside of organs and must direct substances. for example, kidneys are lined with cilia that move with the flow of urine and signal that urine is moving inside the organ

associated diseases

celiac disease is a result of improper functioning of cilia and harms the lining of the intestines when certain foods are eaten

coolio bro

cilia line our entireeeee intestinal tract and are the guys to thank for the absorption of nutrients into our blood form the food we eat
lysosome

structure

lysosomes are lined with a phospholipid membrane and contain enzymes able to digest molecules. the phospholipid membrane allows substances into the organelle but keeps the enzymes from exiting the organelle

function

the lysosome is responsible for digestion of waste in the cell. when waste is produced inside the cell, the membrane opens and takes in the substance for the enzymes inside to break it down

exclusive to any organisms?

Lysosomes may be found in eukaryotic animal cells. Plant cells do not contain lysosomes however, their vacuoles provide the same function plus more in the cell

abundant in what instances?

white blood cells are found to have many lysosomes because they attack and engulf pathogens and other dead cell parts within the blood and have the job of neutralizing them and expelling it as waste

associated diseases

lysosomal storage diseases are rare diseases that impact metabolic systems in the body. Lysosomes failing to dispose of waste may cause a bid up and multiple mishaps within the body

hey heres a fact

people like to call lysosomes the tummy of the cell because they eat up all the left over bad stuff and get rid of it for the cell. thanks lysosomes :)
food vacuole

structure

food vacuoles are circular structures of food surrounded by sections of a cells membrane. when food molecules enter a cell, it becomes wrapped in a part of the cells membrane

function

food vacuoles simply store food molecules in a closed off space inside the cell until the cell is ready to use the food

exclusive to any organisms?

food vacuoles are only found in plant, protist, fungi and animal cells as bacteria do not obtain food from engulfing matter

abundant in what instances?

food vacuoles are larger and more abundant in eukaryotic plant cells because it serves as structural support for the cell and also serves as a good place for water storage in the cell

associated diseases

danons disease is a result of the dangers fusion of a food vacuole and lysosome. people with this disease have a dangerous amount of vacuoles in their muscle cells and are affected by it in daily life

lil fact

a homie named anthonie van leeuwenhoek discovered the vacuole in the 1600's!! thats a long time ago
central vacuole

structure

a central vacuole in a plant cell is most commonly the largest organelle. it is a storage area in the cell that is contained by a membrane

function

central vacuoles in plant cells are essential for water storage but also may store food and do contain enzymes that can allow the vacuole to become a center of waste digestion as well

exclusive to any organisms?

animal cells do contain multiple small vacuole however, only plant cells contain one large central vacuole that are crucial to their survival

abundant in what instances?

cells do not have many central vacuoles because they are so large however, most plant cells have central vacuoles that take up 80% of the entire volume of the cell!

Associated disease

a malfunctioning central vacuole does not cause animal diseases because they are only found in plant cells however, if a central vacuole fails to work a plant cell will become very deprived of water and will not survive

cool cool

the central vacuole can function to hold absolutely anything that the plant cell needs. think of it as the plant cells never-ending backpack

sources

  • http://study.com/academy/lesson/rough-er-definition-function-structure.html
  • http://study.com/academy/lesson/smooth-er-definition-functions-structure.html
  • http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/golgi-apparatus.html
  • http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/mitochondria.html
  • http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/chloroplasts.html
  • http://www.ciliopathyalliance.org/cilia/structure-and-function-of-cilia.html
  • http://study.com/academy/lesson/lysosome-definition-function-quiz.html
  • http://study.com/academy/lesson/plant-cell-structures-the-cell-wall-and-central-vacuole.html
Created By
Jasmine Hambaro
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