Chapter 15 by: Sylvia sumner

SECTION 1: POSTWAR UNCERTAINTY

SETTING THE STAGE:In the postwar period, people began questioning traditional beliefs. Some found answers in new scientific developments, which challenged the way people looked at the world.1)A NEW REVOLUTION IN SCIENCE:The ideas of Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud had an enormous impact on the 20th century. These thinkers were part of a scientific revolution as important as that brought about centuries earlier by Copernicus and Galileo.A)IMPACT OF EINSTEIN'S THEORY OF RELATIVITY:German-born physicist Albert Einstein offered startling new ideas on space, time, energy, and matter.Since relative motion is the key to Einstein’s idea, it is called the theory of relativity. Einstein’s ideas had implications not only for science but also for how people viewed the world. B)INFLUENCE OF FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGY:The ideas of Austrian physician Sigmund Freud were as revolutionary as Einstein’s. From his experiences, he constructed a theory about the human mind. He believed that much of human behavior is irrational, or beyond reason.Freud’s ideas weakened faith in reason.
2)LITERATURE IN THE 1920'S:The brutality of World War I caused philosophers and writers to question accepted ideas about reason and progress. Disillusioned by the war, many people also feared the future and expressed doubts about traditional religious beliefs. In 1922, T. S. Eliot, an American poet living in England, wrote that Western society had lost its spiritual values. He described the postwar world as a barren “wasteland,” drained of hope and faith.A)WRITERS REFLECT SOCIETY"S CONCERNS:The horror of war made a deep impression on many writers. The Czech-born author Franz Kafka wrote eerie novels such as The Trial (1925) and The Castle (1926).Many novels showed the influence of Freud’s theories on the unconscious. The Irish-born author James Joyce gained widespread attention with his stream-of consciousness novel Ulysses (1922).B)THINKERS REACT TO UNCERTAINTIES:In their search for meaning in an uncertain world, some thinkers turned to the philosophy known as existentialism. Existentialists believed that there is no universal meaning to life. Each person creates his or her own meaning in life through choices made and actions taken
3)REVOLUTION IN THE ARTS:Although many of the new directions in painting and music began in the prewar period, they evolved after the war. A)ARTIST REBEL AGAINST TRADITION:Artists rebelled against earlier realistic styles of painting. They wanted to depict the inner world of emotion and imagination rather than show realistic representations of objects. Expressionist painters like Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky used bold colors and distorted or exaggerated forms.Cubism transformed natural shapes into geometric forms. Objects were broken down into different parts with sharp angles and edges. Often several views were depicted at the same time.B)COMPOSERS TRY NEW STYLES:In both classical and popular music, composers moved away from traditional styles. In his ballet masterpiece, The Rite of Spring, the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky used irregular rhythms and dissonances, or harsh combinations of sound. The Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg rejected traditional harmonies and musical scales. A new popular musical style called jazz emerged in the United States. It was developed by musicians, mainly African Americans, in New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago.
4)SOCIETY CHANGES CONVENTION:World War I had disrupted traditional social patterns. New ideas and ways of life led to a new kind of individual freedom during the 1920s. Young people especially were willing to break with the past and experiment with modern values.A)WOMEN'S ROLES CHANGE:The independent spirit of the times showed clearly in the changes women were making in their lives. The war had allowed women to take on new roles. Their work in the war effort was decisive in helping them win the right to vote.Women abandoned restrictive clothing and hairstyles. They wore shorter, looser garments and had their hair “bobbed,” or cut short. They also wore makeup, drove cars, and drank and smoked in public. Although most women still followed traditional paths of marriage and family, a growing number spoke out for greater freedom in their lives. Margaret Sanger and Emma Goldman risked arrest by speaking in favor of birth control.
5)TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES IMPROVE LIFE:During World War I, scientists developed new drugs and medical treatments that helped millions of people in the postwar years. The war’s technological advances were put to use to improve transportation and communication after the war.A)THE AUTOMOBILE ALTERS SOCIETY:The automobile benefited from a host of wartime innovations and improvements—electric starters, air-filled tires, and more powerful engines. Cars were now sleek and brightly polished, complete with headlights and chrome-plated bumpers.Increased auto use by the average family led to lifestyle changes. More people traveled for pleasure. In Europe and the United States, new businesses opened to serve the mobile tourist.B)AIRPLANES TRANSFORM TRAVEL:International air travel became an objective after the war. In 1919, two British pilots made the first successful flight across the Atlantic, from Newfoundland to Ireland. In 1927, an American pilot named Charles Lindbergh captured world attention with a 33-hour solo flight from New York to Paris. Most of the world’s major passenger airlines were established during the 1920s. C)RADIO AND MOVIES DOMINATE POPULAR ENTERTAINMENT:Guglielmo Marconi conducted his first successful experiments with radio in 1895. However, the real push for radio development came during World War I.Motion pictures were also a major industry in the 1920s. Many countries, from Cuba to Japan, produced movies.

SECTION 2: A WORLD WIDE DEPRESSION

1)POSTWAR EUROPE:In both human suffering and economic terms, the cost of World War I was immense. The Great War left every major European country nearly bankrupt. In addition, Europe’s domination in world affairs declined after the war.A)UNSTABLE NEW DEMOCRACY:War’s end saw the sudden rise of new democracies. From 1914 to 1918, Europe’s last absolute rulers had been overthrown. The first of the new governments was formed in Russia in 1917.When no single party won a majority, a coalition government, or temporary alliance of several parties, was needed to form a parliamentary majority.
2)THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC:Known as the Weimar Republic, it was named after the city where the national assembly met. The Weimar Republic had serious weaknesses from the start.A)INFLATION CAUSES CRISIS IN GERMANY:Unlike Britain and France, Germany had not greatly increased its wartime taxes. To pay the expenses of the war, the Germans had simply printed money. After Germany’s defeat, this paper money steadily lost its value.B)ATTEMPTS AT ECONOMIC STABILITY:Germany recovered from the 1923 inflation thanks largely to the work of an international committee. The committee was headed by Charles Dawes, an American banker.C)EFFORTS AT A LASTING PEACE:As prosperity returned, Germany’s foreign minister, Gustav Stresemann, and France’s foreign minister, Aristide Briand, tried to improve relations between their countries.
3)FINANCIAL COLLAPSE:In the late 1920s, American economic prosperity largely sustained the world economy. If the U.S. economy weakened, the whole world’s economic system might collapse. In 1929, it did.A)A FLAWED US ECONOMY:By 1929, American factories were turning out nearly half of the world’s industrial goods. The rising productivity led to enormous profits.However, this new wealth was not evenly distributed. The richest 5 percent of the population received 33 percent of all personal income in 1929. Yet 60 percent of all American families earned less than $2,000 a year. Thus, most families were too poor to buy the goods being produced.B)THE STOCK MARKET CRASHES:In 1929, New York City’s Wall Street was the financial capital of the world. Banks and investment companies lined its sidewalks. At Wall Street’s New York Stock Exchange, optimism about the booming U.S. economy showed in soaring prices for stocks.Everyone wanted to sell stocks, and no one wanted to buy. Prices plunged to a new low on Tuesday, October 29. A record 16 million stocks were sold. Then the market collapsed.
4)THE GREAT DEPRESSION:A long business slump, which would come to be called the Great Depression, followed. The stock market crash alone did not cause the Great Depression, but it quickened the collapse of the economy and made the Depression more difficult.A)A GLOBAL DEPRESSION:The collapse of the American economy sent shock waves around the world. Worried American bankers demanded repayment of their overseas loans, and American investors withdrew their money from Europe. The American market for European goods dropped sharply as the U.S. Congress placed high tariffs on imported goods so that American dollars would stay in the United States and pay for American goods.B)EFFECTS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD:Because of war debts and dependence on American loans and investments, Germany and Austria were particularly hard hit. In 1931, Austria’s largest bank failed. In Asia, both farmers and urban workers suffered as the value of exports fell by half between 1929 and 1931.

5)THE WORLD CONFRONTS THE CRISIS:The Depression confronted democracies with a serious challenge to their economic and political systems. Each country met the crisis in its own way.A)BRITAIN TAKES STEPS TO IMPROVE ITS ECONOMY:The Depression hit Britain severely. To meet the emergency, British voters elected a multiparty coalition known as the National Government. It passed high protective tariffs, increased taxes, and regulated the currency.B)FRANCE RESPOND TO ECONOMIC CRISIS: Unlike Britain, France had a more self sufficient economy. In 1930, it was still heavily agricultural and less dependent on foreign trade. Nevertheless, by 1935, one million French workers were unemployed.C)SOCIALIST GOVERNMENT FIND SOLUTIONS: The Socialist governments in the Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway also met the challenge of economic crisis successfully. They built their recovery programs on an existing tradition of cooperative community action.D)RECOVERY IN THE UNITED STATES: In 1932, in the first presidential election after the Depression had begun, U.S. voters elected Franklin D. Roosevelt. His confident manner appealed to millions of Americans who felt bewildered by the Depression.

SECTION 3:FASCISM RISES IN EUROPE

1)FASICM RISES IN ITALY:Fascism was a new, militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. Unlike communism, fascism had no clearly defined theory or program. Nevertheless, most Fascists shared several ideas.A)MUSSOLINI TAKES CONTROL: Fascism’s rise in Italy was fueled by bitter disappointment over the failure to win large territorial gains at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.B)Il DUCE'S LEADERSHIP: Mussolini was now Il Duce (ihl DOO•chay), or the leader. He abolished democracy and outlawed all political parties except the Fascists. Secret police jailed his opponents. Government censors forced radio stations and publications to broadcast or publish only Fascist doctrines.
2)HITLER RISES TO POWER IN GERMANY:When Mussolini became dictator of Italy in the mid-1920s, Adolf Hitler was a little-known political leader whose early life had been marked by disappointment. When World War I broke out, Hitler found a new beginning. He volunteered for the German army and was twice awarded the Iron Cross, a medal for bravery.A)THE RISES OF THE NAZIS:At the end of the war, Hitler settled in Munich. In 1919, he joined a tiny right-wing political group. This group shared his belief that Germany had to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism.
3)HITLER BECOMES CHANCELLOR:The Nazis had become the largest political party by 1932. Conservative leaders mistakenly believed they could control Hitler and use him for their purposes. In January 1933, they advised President Paul von Hindenburg to name Hitler chancellor.A)THE FUHRER IS SUPREME:Hitler wanted more than just economic and political power—he wanted control over every aspect of German life. To shape public opinion and to win praise for his leadership, Hitler turned the press, radio, literature, painting, and film into propaganda tools.B)HITLER MAKES WAR ON THE JEWS: Hatred of Jews, or anti-Semitism, was a key part of Nazi ideology. Although Jews were less than one percent of the population, the Nazis used them as scapegoats for all Germany’s troubles since the war. This led to a wave of anti-Semitism across Germany. Beginning in 1933, the Nazis passed laws depriving Jews of most of their rights.
4)OTHER COUNTRIES FALL TO DICTATOR:While Fascists took power in Italy and Germany, the nations formed in eastern Europe after World War I also were falling to dictators. In Hungary in 1919, after a brief Communist regime, military forces and wealthy landowners joined to make Admiral Miklós Horthy the first European postwar dictator.In Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, and Romania, kings turned to strong-man rule. They suspended constitutions and silenced foes.By the mid-1930s, the powerful nations of the world were split into two antagonistic camps—democratic and totalitarian

SECTION 4:AGGRESSORS INVADE NATIONS

1)JAPAN SEEKS AN EMPIRE:During the 1920s, the Japanese government became more democratic. In 1922, Japan signed an international treaty agreeing to respect China’s borders. In 1928, it signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact renouncing war.A)MILITARIST TAKE CONTROL OF JAPAN: As long as Japan remained prosperous, the civilian government kept power. But when the Great Depression struck in 1929, many Japanese blamed the government. Military leaders gained support and soon won control of the country. Unlike the Fascists in Europe, the militarists did not try to establish a new system of government.B)JAPAN INVADES MANCHURIA: Japanese businesses had invested heavily in China’s northeast province, Manchuria. It was an area rich in iron and coal.C)JAPAN INVADES CHINA: Four years later, a border incident touched off a full-scale war between Japan and China. Japanese forces swept into northern China. Despite having a million soldiers, China’s army led by Jiang Jieshi was no match for the better equipped and trained Japanese.
2)EUROPEAN AGGRESSORS ON THE MARCH:The League’s failure to stop the Japanese encouraged European Fascists to plan aggression of their own. The Italian leader Mussolini dreamed of building a colonial empire in Africa like those of Britain and France.A)MUSSOLINI ATTACKS ETHIOPIA:Ethiopia was one of Africa’s three independent nations. The Ethiopians had successfully resisted an Italian attempt at conquest during the 1890s. To avenge that defeat, Mussolini ordered a massive invasion of Ethiopia in October 1935. B)

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