Personality theories Connor Henderson

Psychodynamic/ Pschyoanalytic

Explanation: The unconscious mind such as the ego, id and the superego make up the personality

Major Focus: On the unconscious mind

  • Sigmund Freud: He believed that the unconscious mind was causing his patients to feel ill. He believed that personality is a result of the sexual conflicts we encounter as a child. He created the psychosexual stages, oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. He also believed that the personality derived from the power struggle of the id, ego and the superego.
  • Carl Jung: he did not agree with all of Freud's ideas. he believed that Freud focused to much on childhood sexuality.
  • Alfred Adler: Believed that childhood inferiority would later lead to the desire of superiority and power. The inferiority complex
  • Sigmund Frued: Was a smoker and was very close to his daughter and his wife. He ask had oral cancer, but killed himself.
  • Carl Jung: Loved to study about different myths, religions and about different studies. He was an anthropologist.
  1. Id: strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive tendencies
  2. Ego: mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and the reality ( reality principle)
  3. Superego: internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment
  4. Psychosexual stages: different stages of sexual conflicts in childhood that helps to develop our personality later in life. Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
  5. Defense mechanisms: when the ego becomes overwhelmed with anxiety by the unconscious threats it cannot control. Displacement, Rationalization, Reaction Formation, Regression, Repression, Denial, Projection, Sublimation
  6. Collective Unconscious: powerful and influential area that contains the universal archetypes, memories, and ideas that all people have inherited from our ancestors over the course of evolution
  7. Personal unconscious: similar to Freud's unconscious, a storehouse of the individual's memories, instincts, and urges
This shows that the go and the superego are both a somewhat conscious and preconscious, though the id is entirely unconscious.

Humanistic

Explanation: Emphasizes the goodness of people and the ways that they try to achieve self-actualization

Major focus: the personality results from trying to achieve self-actualization

  • Abraham Maslow: believed that we were all born inheritinlty good and that we all are striving to be self-actualized. Believed in the power of counseling, education, parenting, management
  • Carl Rodgers: Believed that we are all born with the need for unconditional positive regard, that personality is based on your self-concept. Believed that if you had a positive self-concept you will certainly have a higher self-esteem and be happy
  • Abraham Maslow: He was the only jewish boy in his neighborhood growing up, because of this he felt very alone and could not relate to other students. He said it was as if a black student went to an all-white school. This caused him to grow up in libraries reading, the books replaced his friends. This is the reason why he why so keen on how friends and family help to push you to self actualization.
  • Carl Rodgers: He was from Oak Park, Illinois. He was able to receive his B.A. from the University of Wisconsin and a M.A. from Colombia University. He later went on to teach psychology as a professor at multiple different university's across the US.
  1. Self actualization: the process of fulfilling our potential, people like this share personality traits like being open, not self-centered, self-aware, mission oriented, loving and caring
  2. Self-concept: organized, consistent set of belief s and perceptions about ourselves, develops in response to life events
  3. ideal self: who you want to be
  4. realself: who you actually are
  5. congruence: real self and ideal see match
  6. incongruence: disparity between real self and ideal self
  7. Positive psychology: the scientific study of optimal human functioning
This is the pyramid of self-actualization, most people do not make it to the top, but to make it to the top you must meet each section's standards to go to the next section above.

Trait theories

Explanation: Personality is the result of stable and enduring traits

Major Focus: on traits which are stable and during patterns of behavior/thinking

  • Allport: He developed the three trait levels (4,000 traits)- cardinal trait, central traits, and secondary traits
  • Eysenck: He believed in 3 dimensions which are extroversion (social), neuroticism (stability), and psychotics (hostility)
  • Costa and McCrae: they both created the Big five factors
  • Allport: He was one of the first people to study personality, he mostly worked at Harvard, spending most of his career there. He is actually referred to one of the founding father of personality.
  • Eysenck: He was a german born psychologist who studied mostly in Great Britain. He is revered for his personality and his work with treatment of mental illnesses.
  • Costa and McCrae: They are actually new on the scene of psychology and are actually still alive to this day. They are mostly known for their theory of the Big five factors
  1. The Big five factors: 5 traits that seem to be stable in adulthood, heritable, applicable cross-culturally, and good predictors of other personal attributes. It is OCEAN. O=openness (imagination, feelings), C=conscientiousness (competence, goal-driven), E=extraversion (sociability, emotional expression), A=agreeableness (trustworthy, cooperative), N=neuroticism (tendency toward unstable emotions)
  2. cardinal trait: defining characteristic
  3. central traits: 5-10 general traits
  4. cecondary traits: show up only in certain situations
  5. temperament: emotional reactivity
  6. personality inventories: long questionaries covering a wide range of feelings and behaviors
  7. Minnesota Multiphase personality: most widely used, discriminates between many traits, used by clinicians, employers, etc
  8. Myers-Briggs Typology test: based on Jung's archetypes, widely used but little scientific research supports its validity or reliability
  9. Big Five questionnaire: assesses the Big 5 factors, used in cross-cultural research
This is what the Big Five Factors looks like, this also shows what it means if you get a low score or a high score depending on which factor you are testing.

Bandura's Reciprocal Determinism

The interaction between an individual's characteristics, behavior, and the environment

They all feed off of each other and influence the other

Amanda Bynes

Psychoanalytical: Her id, or otherwise known as the pleasure principle, took over the superego and the ego. Her superego and ego may not be very effective which is why they didn't stop her from substance abuse. Freud may believe that she had a hard time weaning off a bottle/ breast causing her to later begin a smoking habit. This smoking habit could have lead to an addiction, which is why she is the way she is now. I believe she is also in denial that she has a problem with drugs and alcohol.

Humanistic: I believe she is not self-actualized, there could have been a time in her younger years where there was the chance of her becoming self-actualized, but her addiction stopped her from doing so. She probably has the first stage of food, and shelter. Though I do not think she has the safety anymore, her addiction destroyed that, just as her addiction destroyed her friendships, her family relationships and the possibility of having a providing partner. I doubt her self-confidence is high and she probably has low motivation leading her to have low achievement. These all indicate that she is not self-actualized, she destroys her chance with her addiction.

Traits: According to O on the Big 5 factor test I believe she has a high score and that she is a very open person, though her openness may be prompted on by the alcohol or drugs affecting her mind. She scores a low score for conscientiousness meaning she is very impulsive, careless and disorganized. I know this because deciding to partake in drugs is a careless decision. I feel as though the drugs may have made her go from being very extroverted to becoming quiet and reserved because she is guilty of her addiction. She probably scores very low on agreeableness as well meaning that she is very critical and uncooperative, I believe this because she is in denial that she has a problem. She also probably scores high in neuroticism, mostly because the drugs she takes affected her so much that they made her anxious, unhappy and prone to negative emotions who she is completely clean and doesn't have any substances to alter her at a 'pure' state.

Credits:

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