Landforms and Bodies of Water
- Land forms- A series of plateaus that range in elevation from 3,000 feet ti 6,000 feet cover most of the region. The Kalahari Desert is a vast, sand-covered plateau that sits some 3,000 feet above sea level.
- Most of the region is covered by a huge plateau that slopes form 8,000 feet in the east to 2,000 feet.
- Bodies of Water- Three major river systems- the Zambezi, Limpopo, and Orange drain most of Southern Africa.
Which type of land form is common in Southern Africa? The Answer- Plateaus
Climates of South Africa-
6. Northern Angola and northern Mozambique have a tropical wet-dry climate. Each area gets as much as 70 inches of rain per year.
7. Much of South Africa, central Namibia, eastern Botswana, and southern Mozambique have temperate, or moderate, climates that are not marked by extremes of temperature. Winters are cool, with frosts and sometimes freezing temperatures on the high plateaus.
8.The Namib gets very little rain. In some years no rain falls. In inland areas of the Namib Desert, temperatures are hotter with summer highs from the upper 80F to more than 100F
Why are temperatures in Southern Africa's tropical countries generally not hot? The Answer- Because there is a lot of rain there thanks to the climate.
What natural resources are found in Southern Africa, and why are they important? The Answer- Platinum, chromium, gold, diamonds, coal/That is how they bring in the money.
South Africa Resources-
11. World largest producer of platinum, chromium, diamonds, gold. This industry has attracted workers from other countries that have helped South Africa.
12. The Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Bostwana, Mozambique mine and burn coal from their own deposits to produce most of their electric power. The regions rivers are another source of power.
13. Blood diamonds- Diamonds that are sold on the black market, with the proceeds going to provide gums and ammunition to violent conflict. Mozambique has the world's largest supply of the rare metal tantalite.
14. Southern Africa is known for it's variety of animal life. Lions, zebras, giraffes, and many others.
How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region? Allows more sediment into the rivers causing less power by rivers.
History of South Africa-
1. Rise of the Kingdoms- Southern Africa's indigenous people have inhabited the region for thousands of years.
2. Around the year A.D. 900, the Shona people built a wealthy and powerful kingdom in what is now Zimbabwe and Mozambique. As many as 20,000 people lived in the city and the surrounding valley.
3. The Portuguese arrived and took over the coastal trade in the 1500's. Instead, the Rozwi conquered the Mutapa's territory and ruled it until the early 1800's.
4. The Zulu leader Shaka united his people in the early 1800's to form the Zulu empire in what is now South Africa. He built a powerful army and used it to expand the empire by conquering neighboring people.
5. As time pass the Europeans grew interested in exploiting Africa's natural resources and as a source of labor it's people.
6. The Africans did not like the dutch pushing into their land and soon they started fighting over it.
7. Wars in Europe gave Britain control of the Cape Colony in the early 1800's.
8. European control continued for about the next 80 years.
Question: Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800's Answer: Britain
10. French rule in Madagascar ended in 1960 making it the first Southern African country to gain independence.
11. Revolts for independence broke out in Angola in 1961 and Mozambique in 1964.
12. Rhodesia African population demanded the right to vote.
13. English South Africans controlled the government until the end of World War 2. Mandela was released from prison in 1991. In 1993 a new constitution gave South Africans of all races the right to vote.
Life in Southern Africa-
The people of the Region- The population of Southern Africa is overwhelmingly black African.
Population Patterns- Fewer than 2 million people live in the small countries of Lesotho and Swaziland. Surprisingly, Malawi is also Southern Africa's most rural nation. Only 20 percent of its people live in cities
Ethnic and Culture Groups- About 4 million Tswana form the major population group in Botswana. Groups like the Chewa, Tsonga, Ambo, and San illustrate an important point about Southern Africa's history. When Europeans divided the region, they paid little attention to its indigenous people.
Religion and Languages- In almost every country, most of the people are Christians. In Angola, however, nearly half the population continues to hold traditional indigenous religious beliefs.
What is the main religion practiced in South Africa? Answer: Christianity
Life in Southern Africa- As in other regions of Africa, life differs from city to countryside.
Urban Life- Although most people in the region of Southern Africa live in the countryside, migration to cities grows because of job opportunities.
Urban Growth and Change- The region's cities have a mix of many ethnic groups and cultures. Outside the central city are the white neighborhoods where about 20 percent of the city's population live. Johannesburg's role as a mining, manufacturing, and financial center has attracted people from around the world.
Family and Traditional life- Rural villages are often small-consisting of perhaps 20 or 30 houses. In many cultures, all the people in a village are related by blood or marriage to the village's headman or chief.
Question- Where do most of Southern Africans live? Answer: In rural areas
Southern Africa Today- Still, the region faces serious social, economic, and political challenges.
Health Issues- Life expectancy in Southern Africa is low.
Disease- Malaria, a tropical disease carried by mosquitoes, is a problem in several countries. Southern Africa has some of the highest rates of infant death in the world. A major cause of death in children and adults is HIV/AIDS.
Progress and Growth- Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild the cities and towns, industries, railroads, and communications systems that have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war. Oil exports in Angola and aluminum exports in Mozambique help finance this effort.
Help From Other Countries- The United States has used economic aid to strengthen democracy in Southern Africa. Other countries and international organizations have also made huge investments.
Question-Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low? Answer: Lack of good rural health care is one reason.