4 Emotions Elements
1. – They are short events or episodes & are relatively short-lived.
Excitement about making a big sale or anxiety over a deadline
2. They are directed at something or someone & it is what differentiates it from moods.
3. Emotions are experienced & involve involuntary change in heart rate, blood pressure, facial expressions, animation & vocal tone
WE FEEL EMOTION
4. Create a state of readiness through physiological reactions.
Increased heart rate, adrenaline and eye movements prepare our bodies to take action.
Strong emotions can include fear, anger and surprise can demand our attention, interrupt our thoughts and motivate to respond by focusing our attention on whatever is generating the emotion.
“An Attitude can be thought as a Judgment about something; An emotion is experienced or felt”
The Role of Emotions
1.- Effective employees or managers know how to influence their emotions and of others.
2.- Emotions maintain and create the motivation to engage or not engage in certain behaviors.
3. - Can influence turnover, decision making, leadership, helping behaviors and team work behaviors.
“Leaders use emotions to generate positive follower behaviors”
Affect and Mood
Moods tend to be unfocused and diffused
Short-term emotional states and are not directed to anything in particular.
Changes with expectations of future pleasure or pain.
It can last days, months or even years
Mood at the start of a workday influence how we see and react to work events & influence our performance.
MOODS reflect an individual’s emotional state.
Moods can be influenced by others –
Nasty interactions with coworkers can impact 5 times more that positive interactions.
2 Dominant Dimensions of Mood
Positive Affect -
A combination of high energy and positive evaluation
Increase creativity, openness to new information, and efficient decision making.
Negative Affect -
Comprise feelings like being afraid, upset and fearful.
“Some people just tend to be more positive and optimistic than others”
Perception in Organizations
Is how an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environment.
“Things would be simpler if everyone interpreted things in the same way”
Selective Perception –
The process of screening information and contradicts our beliefs.
Ex1: A manager has a positive attitude abut an employee and sees it sleeping in the desk; the manager will think it is taking a nap because it stayed late working hard.
Ex2: In the other hand, if the manager has a negative attitude for an employee and the same situation happens; the manager will think that it is sleeping because it stayed late partying.
Categorize or label a person in a single attribute.
Ex1: Choosing for job interviews people with communication majors for a communications job opening, it can lead to a beneficial result in this stereotyping situation.
Stereotyping with race or sex, can not be accurate and be harmful
Ex2: Stereotyping that women can only perform certain tasks and men are better suited for other tasks
Hiring practices could be affecting: (1) Costing the organization valuable talent for both sets of jobs, (2) violating federal law, (3) behaving unethically.
Errors in Perception
The Halo Effect -
A general impression about something or someone based on a single characteristic.
Ex1: People tend to associate beauty with other positive characteristics.
Ex2: Attractive people posses more socially desirable personalities that lead to happier and successful lives.
The Contrast Effect -
When evaluating a person’s personality with another person’s personality
Ex: After seeing cashier John high performance; then we evaluate Erika and evaluate her below average because of John’s performance was better.
First Impression Bias -
We tend to avoid people after receiving a first bad impression.
They ar harder to change than positive ones.
Solution: Quickly look for positive information that disconfirms your negative impression before they become too strongly held.
The way we explain the causes of our own and other’s people behaviors and achievements.
Job performance and survival often depend on how accurate are the attributions of our supervisors, coworkers, and customer behavior outcomes.
Ex: When you do well in a test, you attribute your effort and ability, but when is someone else you attribute to luck and lack of grading from the professor.
Internal Attributes -
The individual’s effort and ability (Their Own).
External Attributes -
Things like luck, lack of resources or other people (The environment).
Rules to Evaluate if it is an Internal or External Attribution
Has the person regularly behaved like this in the past?
Ex1: If the person consistently earns good grades, then it is Internal.
Ex2: If the person consistently does low grades, then it is external
Does the person act the same way or receive similar outcomes in different type of situations?
Ex1: If the person consistently earns good grades and earns an “A”, the reaction of celebrating would be low, then it is Internal.
Ex2: If the person consistently earns low grades and earns an “A”, the reaction of celebrating would be high, then it is external
Would others behave similarly in the same situation or receive the same outcome?
Ex1: If almost every one in the class earned an “A”, then it is external.
Ex2: If almost no one in the class earned an “A”, then it is internal.
When people themselves put obstacles to their success. I
t creates impediments and decrease motivation and performance.
Ex: People that takes drugs or drink alcohol.
The Nature of Stress
A physical or physiological response of an individual to an stimulus in some way
Places excessive physiological or physical demands on the person
A stimulus called stressor is anything that induce stress
The Stress Process
General Adaptation Syndrome -
It is the normal level of resistance to stressful events
Some people can tolerate more stress than others, but at some point stress starts to affect us
The person feel a degree of panic and wonder how to deal with it
Can I deal with it?
Should I run away?
Distress & Eustress
Sources of stress does not necessarily need to be bad
Ex: Receiving a bonus & then deciding what to do with the money can be stressful
Stress that comes from good things or situations
Ex: Getting married, getting a promotion, writing a speech for winning an award
Stress that comes from negative things or situations
It is comes from hearing bad news and results in negative consequences
Excessive pressure, unreasonable demands
Common Causes of Stress
Organizational Stressors -
Factors in the workplace that cause stress
4 General sets of Organizational Stress
Task Demands -
Stressors associated with the specific job a person performs
Ex: A brain surgeon can cause inherently stress
Ex: Lack of job security
Physical Demands -
Job that require physical demands to the person
Demands function in the physical characteristics of the setting and the physical tasks the job involves
Role Demands -
A set of expected behaviors associated with the position in the group or organization
Interpersonal Demands -
Group pressure - Pressure to conform to the group's norms
Leadership - Employee might not feel supported by its boss, this employee probably will feel stressed
Interpersonal Conflict - Earn two or more people must work together and there is conflict
Personalities, attitudes, and behaviors differ
Ex: A person that always wants to work in a peaceful and quiet environment will have conflict with a person that requires to talk on the telephone most of the day.
Consequences of Stress
If stress is positive, the result may be more energy, enthusiasm, and motivation
The stress outcomes affect mainly the Individual
The organization might be a little affected, but the individual is who ends up paying the real price
Behavioral Consequences: Might harm the person when under stress or others
Ex: Smoking more when under stress
Psychological Consequences: Related to the person's mental health and well-being
Ex: When a person is under stress might feel depressed or sleep too much or not enough
Medical Consequences: Stress affect the person's physical well-being
Ex: Heart disease and stroke linked to stress
Too much stress in the organization can result in a decline in performance
Ex: Poor quality work or a drop in productivity
Managers could be doing faulty decision making or bad working relationships
People become irritable and hard to get along with
People having a hard time at work prefer to call in sick or consider leaving the organization
Managing and Controlling Stress
Stress can easily widespread and be disruptive
Individual Coping Strategies -
Exercise - People tend to be less likely to have heart attacks, show greater optimism and feel less tension
Relaxation - Take regular vacations and take regular rest breaks at work
A person's life and work
Ex: The person's spouse, hobbies, friendships, community involvement.
Stress will occur when there is an inconsistency or incompatibility between a person's work and life dimensions