Individual Values, Perceptions, & Reactions Daniel Correa - Ch.4

What feelings, attitudes, emotions or perceptions did you see ?

Attitudes in the Organization

Are people beliefs and feelings about situations, ideas or other people

Affect the behavior in the organization

It is how people express their feelings

Influences in our attitudes

Agreeableness – Ability to get along with others

Conscientiousness – A person dependable & organized

Neuroticism – A person that easily gets angry, anxious, depressed & vulnerable feelings.

Extraversion – Person that it is comfortable with relationships

Introversion - Person that it is less comfortable with relationships & social situations

Openness – A person that it is willing to open new ideas and adapt its own ideas or beliefs.


Knowledge a person presumes to have about something

Ex: You vote for a particular candidate because "YOU THINK" something positive about him/her.

Depending on the candidate's honesty and your understanding that of his/her statements.


Person’s feelings towards something

Ex: Hate, sex, love & war


Components that will guide a person to a specific behavior

Ex: If you like a professor you may intend to take more classes with him in the future

Cognitive Dissonance

Inconsistency in a person’s own thoughts

Behavior vs. Attitude

I smoke cigarettes & Smoking is unhealthy

If smoking is bad, by Logic the person wouldn’t smoke

4 ways of restoring consistency

1.- Change a thought:

Adapt one of the thoughts to restore consistency - Smoking it is not that bad, actually is not unhealthy

2.- Change a Behavior:

Stop the behavior and fix it! - Stop smoking since it is bad

3. – Add a thought:

Add a new thought to the mix to make the inconsistency rational

1 - Yes smoking is bad

2 - Yes I do smoke

3 - I also do healthy stuff, exercise, eat fruits & vegetables

4 - Trivialize the Inconsistency:

Sure, Smoking is bad, I smoke & I do not care

Why restore consistency?

People wants to feel better about something & they want to find some sense of truth

Attitude Changes

Are less stable as personalities & new Information can change attitude

Ex1: A manager has a negative attitude about an employee with lack of experience

After a while he realizes it is talented and develops a positive attitude

Key work-Related Attitude

People form attitudes in an organization for different things

Ex: Salary, promotion possibilities, their boss, employee benefits, food in the cafeteria’s company.

Job satisfaction

Attitudes and feelings about the job

It influences the Job satisfaction

The work it self –

If the person does not like what it is doing, it is hard to be satisfied with the job.

Challenging work, autonomy, variety, and job scope can increase satisfaction

Attitudes -

People’s perception and attitudes can be contagious

New hires Interacting with unhappy and dissatisfied employees is more likely to get contagious

Value -

People that do not find value in their job, will do only what it is important for them.

Someone that values “challenge” and “variety” in work, will be more satisfied with a job with these characteristics.

Personality -

Job satisfaction is due in part to differences in employee’s genetics and personality

Someone extroverted, conscientious who are a good fit for the job can influence the job satisfaction.

Organizational Commitment

Degree where the employee identifies with the organization and its goals and wants to stay with the organization.

3 Ways people can feel committed to an employer

1.- Affective commitment –

Positive emotional attachment to the organization & strong identification with its values & goals.

leads employees to stay in the organization by personal decision and it is related to higher performance.

Ex. Nurses in a hospital can be affectively committed because of its goals; to offer top-quality health care to kids.

2. - Normative Commitment –

Feels obligated to stay with the organization for moral or ethical reasons.

It is related to higher performance and leads employees to stay because they feel they should.

Ex: An employee that finished an MBA, sponsored by the organization, feels that needs to stay at least for a couple years to pay the debt of his studies back to the organization.

3.- Continuance Commitment -

Staying in organization for fear of losing high valuable benefits and not being able to get them from another organization.

Leads employees to stay because they feel they have to.

Ex: An employee feel they have to stay in the organization because it might lose his company car benefits, losing valuable stock option or friendships with coworkers.

Employee Engagement

Emotional & intellectual connection of employee for his job, organization, manage, coworkers and influences his job performance.

Enhance Engagement with Employees

Give them clear goals

Provide the needed resources to do a good job

Give meaningful feedback on their performance.

Let them use their talents

Recognize them for doing a good job

Supervise they have positive relationship with coworkers

Offer opportunities to grow

Offer supportive leadership.

Values and Emotions in Organizations

Values -

Ways of behaviors or conditions that are desired by a person or group.

They can be conscious or unconscious.

They influence organization’s outcomes of performance and retention.

Company’s values affect organizational behaviors like:

Staffing, reward system, manager-employee relationships, communication, conflict management & negotiation approaches.

Personal Values influence ethical choices where no clear rules were specified to the person.

Types of Values

Terminal Values -

Long-term life goals: Prosperity, happiness, a secure family and sense of accomplishment.

People that values family more than a career will work fewer hours, rather than people that put career success first.

Influence what we want to accomplish

Instrumental Values -

Influence how we get there to accomplish our terminal goals.

Honesty, independence and ambition.

Intrinsic work values -

Relate to the work itself and being satisfied.

Some employees prefer challenging jobs with and continually learn new things.

Some employees prefer simpler jobs that can perform in the same way every day.

Extrinsic work values -

Relate to the outcomes of doing work and being satisfied.

They are employees that work to earn money or to have health benefits.

They are employees that do it to have high status in the company, getting recognized for quality work and have job security.

Conflicts among values

“Influence employee attitudes, retention, job satisfaction and job performance”

Intrapersonal value conflict -

Personal values and desires conflicts

Being happy can require to spend more time with family or pursuing a hobby we love.

Personal ambition can require work longer hours and pursue promotions

Interpersonal value conflict -

When two different people hold conflicting by different personalities & other disagreements.

A coworker that values group recognition will not approach a project the same way a person that values individual reward.

Differences lead to different work style, work preferences & reactions to announcements or events.

Individual Organization value conflict -

Employees values can conflict with the organization’s values

The lower the conflict, the higher performance, lower stress, & greater job commitment.

The Role of Emotions in Behavior

Does people perform the same way when they are excited, when they are unhappy or afraid?

Employees that effectively manage their emotions and moods can create a competitive advantage for the company.

Emotions –

Are intense, short-term physiological, behavioral, and psychological reactions to a specific object, person or event that prepare us to respond to it.

4 Emotions Elements

1. – They are short events or episodes & are relatively short-lived.

Excitement about making a big sale or anxiety over a deadline

2. They are directed at something or someone & it is what differentiates it from moods.

3. Emotions are experienced & involve involuntary change in heart rate, blood pressure, facial expressions, animation & vocal tone


4. Create a state of readiness through physiological reactions.

Increased heart rate, adrenaline and eye movements prepare our bodies to take action.

Strong emotions can include fear, anger and surprise can demand our attention, interrupt our thoughts and motivate to respond by focusing our attention on whatever is generating the emotion.

“An Attitude can be thought as a Judgment about something; An emotion is experienced or felt”

The Role of Emotions

1.- Effective employees or managers know how to influence their emotions and of others.

2.- Emotions maintain and create the motivation to engage or not engage in certain behaviors.

3. - Can influence turnover, decision making, leadership, helping behaviors and team work behaviors.

“Leaders use emotions to generate positive follower behaviors”

Affect and Mood

Moods tend to be unfocused and diffused

Mood –

Short-term emotional states and are not directed to anything in particular.

Changes with expectations of future pleasure or pain.

It can last days, months or even years

Mood at the start of a workday influence how we see and react to work events & influence our performance.

MOODS reflect an individual’s emotional state.

Moods can be influenced by others –

Nasty interactions with coworkers can impact 5 times more that positive interactions.

2 Dominant Dimensions of Mood

Positive Affect -

A combination of high energy and positive evaluation

Increase creativity, openness to new information, and efficient decision making.

Negative Affect -

Comprise feelings like being afraid, upset and fearful.

“Some people just tend to be more positive and optimistic than others”

Perception in Organizations

Perception –

Is how an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environment.

“Things would be simpler if everyone interpreted things in the same way”

Selective Perception –

The process of screening information and contradicts our beliefs.

Ex1: A manager has a positive attitude abut an employee and sees it sleeping in the desk; the manager will think it is taking a nap because it stayed late working hard.

Ex2: In the other hand, if the manager has a negative attitude for an employee and the same situation happens; the manager will think that it is sleeping because it stayed late partying.

Stereotyping –

Categorize or label a person in a single attribute.

Ex1: Choosing for job interviews people with communication majors for a communications job opening, it can lead to a beneficial result in this stereotyping situation.

Stereotyping with race or sex, can not be accurate and be harmful

Ex2: Stereotyping that women can only perform certain tasks and men are better suited for other tasks

Hiring practices could be affecting: (1) Costing the organization valuable talent for both sets of jobs, (2) violating federal law, (3) behaving unethically.

Errors in Perception

The Halo Effect -

A general impression about something or someone based on a single characteristic.

Ex1: People tend to associate beauty with other positive characteristics.

Ex2: Attractive people posses more socially desirable personalities that lead to happier and successful lives.

The Contrast Effect -

When evaluating a person’s personality with another person’s personality

Ex: After seeing cashier John high performance; then we evaluate Erika and evaluate her below average because of John’s performance was better.

First Impression Bias -

We tend to avoid people after receiving a first bad impression.

They ar harder to change than positive ones.

Solution: Quickly look for positive information that disconfirms your negative impression before they become too strongly held.

Attribution –

The way we explain the causes of our own and other’s people behaviors and achievements.

Job performance and survival often depend on how accurate are the attributions of our supervisors, coworkers, and customer behavior outcomes.

Ex: When you do well in a test, you attribute your effort and ability, but when is someone else you attribute to luck and lack of grading from the professor.

Internal Attributes -

The individual’s effort and ability (Their Own).

External Attributes -

Things like luck, lack of resources or other people (The environment).

Rules to Evaluate if it is an Internal or External Attribution

Consistency -

Has the person regularly behaved like this in the past?

Ex1: If the person consistently earns good grades, then it is Internal.

Ex2: If the person consistently does low grades, then it is external

Distinctiveness -

Does the person act the same way or receive similar outcomes in different type of situations?

Ex1: If the person consistently earns good grades and earns an “A”, the reaction of celebrating would be low, then it is Internal.

Ex2: If the person consistently earns low grades and earns an “A”, the reaction of celebrating would be high, then it is external

Consensus -

Would others behave similarly in the same situation or receive the same outcome?

Ex1: If almost every one in the class earned an “A”, then it is external.

Ex2: If almost no one in the class earned an “A”, then it is internal.

Self-handicapping –

When people themselves put obstacles to their success. I

t creates impediments and decrease motivation and performance.

Ex: People that takes drugs or drink alcohol.

The Nature of Stress

A physical or physiological response of an individual to an stimulus in some way

Stress -

Places excessive physiological or physical demands on the person

A stimulus called stressor is anything that induce stress

The Stress Process

General Adaptation Syndrome -

It is the normal level of resistance to stressful events

Some people can tolerate more stress than others, but at some point stress starts to affect us


The person feel a degree of panic and wonder how to deal with it

Can I deal with it?

Should I run away?

Distress & Eustress

Sources of stress does not necessarily need to be bad

Ex: Receiving a bonus & then deciding what to do with the money can be stressful

Eustress -

Stress that comes from good things or situations

Ex: Getting married, getting a promotion, writing a speech for winning an award

Distress -

Stress that comes from negative things or situations

It is comes from hearing bad news and results in negative consequences

Excessive pressure, unreasonable demands

Common Causes of Stress

Organizational Stressors -

Factors in the workplace that cause stress

4 General sets of Organizational Stress

Task Demands -

Stressors associated with the specific job a person performs

Ex: A brain surgeon can cause inherently stress

Ex: Lack of job security

Physical Demands -

Job that require physical demands to the person

Demands function in the physical characteristics of the setting and the physical tasks the job involves

Role Demands -

A set of expected behaviors associated with the position in the group or organization

Interpersonal Demands -

Group pressure - Pressure to conform to the group's norms

Leadership - Employee might not feel supported by its boss, this employee probably will feel stressed

Interpersonal Conflict - Earn two or more people must work together and there is conflict

Personalities, attitudes, and behaviors differ

Ex: A person that always wants to work in a peaceful and quiet environment will have conflict with a person that requires to talk on the telephone most of the day.

Consequences of Stress

If stress is positive, the result may be more energy, enthusiasm, and motivation

Individual Consequences

The stress outcomes affect mainly the Individual

The organization might be a little affected, but the individual is who ends up paying the real price

Behavioral Consequences: Might harm the person when under stress or others

Ex: Smoking more when under stress

Psychological Consequences: Related to the person's mental health and well-being

Ex: When a person is under stress might feel depressed or sleep too much or not enough

Medical Consequences: Stress affect the person's physical well-being

Ex: Heart disease and stroke linked to stress

Organizational Consequences

Too much stress in the organization can result in a decline in performance

Ex: Poor quality work or a drop in productivity

Managers could be doing faulty decision making or bad working relationships

People become irritable and hard to get along with

People having a hard time at work prefer to call in sick or consider leaving the organization

Managing and Controlling Stress

Stress can easily widespread and be disruptive

Individual Coping Strategies -

Exercise - People tend to be less likely to have heart attacks, show greater optimism and feel less tension

Relaxation - Take regular vacations and take regular rest breaks at work

Work-Life Balance

A person's life and work

Ex: The person's spouse, hobbies, friendships, community involvement.

Stress will occur when there is an inconsistency or incompatibility between a person's work and life dimensions


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