The Scientific Revolution
Galileo : Galileo was born February 18, 1564 in Pisa, Italy. Galileo played a major role during the scientific revolution in the 1700's. He was an Italian polymath ; astronomer, philosopher, engineer, and mathematician. He had three children and attended the University of Pita for a degree in medicine. Later in 1585 he left the University of Pita without a degree. His achievements were improvement to the telescope and he proved Copernicus's heliocentric theory was true. With his telescope he pointed it towards the sky and observed that the moon was rough and uneven, that four moons revolve around Jupiter and observed that planets such as Mercury and Venus pass through phases like the moon. This showed that the planets circled the sun to go through phases and certainly didn't circle the Earth. He proved his discoveries with experiments not with assumptions. His teachings ruled out the Church's teachings but people disagreed with his theories and they put him in jail. The church was threatened from Galileo since he proved the geocentric theory wasn't true and their belief system was based on the geocentric theory. If Galileo proved one of their most important teachings to be untrue then that meant all their other teachings could be proven wrong. It is believed that Galileo was later put in house arrest for the remanding years of his life since he didn't accept the belief of the geocentric theory but instead he believed the heliocentric theory.
Isaac Newton : Isaac Newton January 4, 1643 Woolsthorpe, England. Isaac was a English mathematician, physicist, and astronomer who was one of the most influential scientist of time and was also a key figure in the scientific revolution. He was a son of a farmer who had died three months before he died, he spent most of his early life with his grandmother. Newton attended the King’s School in Grantham before enrolling at the University of Cambridge’s Trinity College in 1661. He discovered gravity and published a book about the laws of motion. It took Isaac Newton almost twenty years to write the 'Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica' he wrote about the three laws of motion and his theories of universal gravitation and defined the principles of modern physics. the modern His book is widely regarded as one of the most important books in the history of science. Newton studied the work of former scientists and used those works to help draw conclusions of his own.
- Johannes Kepler : Johannes Kepler was born in December 27, 1571 in Weil der Stadt, Germany. Kelper was a astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher in the late 1500's. He enrolled into the University of Tübingen and took courses greek, hebrew and philosophy. Kelper studied the work of Nicolaus Copernicus's and his theory that planets orbit the sun ( Heliocentric Theory ). In 1596 he published a book 'Mystery of the Cosmos' where he explained why the sun lay at the center of the solar system. Kelper improved upon Copernicus's heliocentric theory because he figured out the planets didn't travel in perfect circles but instead traveled in ellipses (ovals). He came up with the planetary motion which explained the orbital properties of planets. Later his work factored extensively for Isaac Newton's discovery about the law of universal gravitation.
Nicolaus Copernicus : Nicolaus Copernicus was born February 19, 1473 in Torun, Poland. He went to Balogna University and studied astronomy, mathematics, philosophy and law. By 1532 he made various observations and theories to show where Earth's place was in the Universe. He discovered that the earth and all of the planets revolve around the sun. Before his discovery people believed that the Sun was in the middle of the solar system and that planets and the sun revolved around it. Copernicus lay at his death bed at the age of 70 when he published his book 'De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium' in his book he established that planets orbit the Sun and doesn't orbit Earth. His work still had some flaws for one thing he had a theory that planets moved in perfect circles. Later in the 1600's Johannes Kepler identified that the orbits of the planets were ellipses (ovals) not circular.Even though some of his work were not correct it developed a foundation for later scientists to build ideas on and advance the world's understanding of natural sciences.
The Enlightenment ; The Enlightenment was a time of ideas that inspired many theories and reasoning that we have today. The Enlightenment informed that we can have our own ideas. Scientists were afraid to think away from the teachings of the church. People were put into jail when creating ideas that were different from the bible teachings. New theories were made that were not taught in the bible and people started to think for themselves and questioned accepted beliefs. The Enlightenment allowed people to look at situations in a scientific way without depending on the beliefs of the bible. Scientists tested out their ideas on various different levels to ensure that their observations were accurate. Enlightenment changed the way people lived, as people began questioning the workings of society and government. A new idea was that humans were able to discover the truth for themselves. A way the Renaissance influenced the Enlightenment was people started questioning accepted beliefs. The Reformation led to the Enlightenment because people started to rebel against the catholic church. The scientific revolution led to the Enlightenment because people starting becoming less religious and realized that accepted truths could be questioned. Thinkers began to challenge the accepted beliefs using ancient Greek/Roman texts. Before the Enlightenment, the catholic church helped maintain the idea that Kings had a divine right to rule. John Locke was a very significant person during the Enlightenment. Locke Wrote Two Treatises of Government, and argued that people should start a government through a social contract so they can conserve their natural rights. John Locke is well-known for claiming every human has certain rights not given to them by the law or society. Locke said that human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was built in order to look after these rights and if the government failed to do so, it was the job of the people to rebel. Another important person to the Enlightenment was Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu. He was one of the leading figure during the Enlightenment. One of his most influential works was "The Spirit of the Laws" it talked about Montesquieu's theory on non-despotic government. He had an idea to divide the government's power into three branches so no one could seize power for them self. The founding fathers were heavily influenced from the works of Montesquieu. John Locke and Montesquieu influenced the founding fathers of America to fight for our freedom and independence. The Enlightenment effected the religious political leaders because scientists proposed new ideas to the government and challenged some of the governments ideas. Before Enlightenment governments were mostly Divine Right monarchies. Enlightenment thinkers protested against these traditions and wanted individual freedom. The founding fathers were influenced from the works of people before them and wanted a government that treated all equal.