Section 1: Postwar Uncertainty
1. A New Revolution in Science:
- During the 20th Century, Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud had a large impact on science advantances
A. Impact of Einstein's Theory of Relativity
- Offered new ideas on space, time, energy, and matter.
- in 1905, Einstein realized that even though the speed of light may seem constant, space and time seem constant but they are not. (theory of relativity)
- His ideas had implications for science and how people see the world.
- Uncertainty and relativity replaced Isaac Newton's belief of a world operating according to the absolute laws of motion and gravity.
B. Influence of Freudian Psychology
- From Frued's experiences of treating psychological patients, he constructed the theory that much of human behavior is irrational.
- The irrational part of the mind was called unconscious, one of the drives there is the pleasure seeking drive.
2. Literature in the 1920's
- People feared the future and had doubts about their religious beliefs because of how brutal WWI was.
- T.S.Elliot described postwar life as a barren wasteland drained of hope and faith
- "The Second Coming" was written by William Butler Yeats. It said: "Things fall apart; the center cannot hold;/ Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world."
A. Writers Reflect Society's Concerns
- Because of war, many writers like Franz Kafka wrote eerie novels.
- James Joyce wrote the novel "Ulysses" showing Freud's influences of the unconscious theory.
B. Thinkers React to Uncertainties
- Many thinkers turned to existailism; the theory that there's no universal meaning to life.
- Each person creates their own meaning in life through choices they made and actions taken
- Friedrich Nietzache urged a return to the values of pride, assertiveness, and strength.
- those ideas had a great influence on Italian and German government in the 1920s and 1930s.
3. Revolution in the Arts
A. Artists Rebel Against Tradition
- Painters were tired of realistic paintings so they started using the style of Expressionism.
- Cubism transformed natural shapes into geometric forms.
- Surrealists tried to call on the unconscious part of their mind.
B. Composers Try New Styles
- In both classical and popular music, composers moved away from traditional styles.
- Jazz was developed by African Americans in New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago musicians.
4. Society Challenges Convention
- New ideas and ways of life lead to a new kind of individual freedom during the 1920's
A. Women's Roles Change
- After war, women's suffrage became a law in Germany, Sweden, and Austria.
- Women started wearing shorter, looser clothes, short hair, makeup, drove cars, and smoked in public.
- Women sought new careers.
5. Technological Advances Improve Life
- New drugs and medical treatments helped millions of people postwar.
A. The Automobile Alters Society
- Cars were now sleek and brightly polished, complete with headlights and chrome plated bumpers
- Prices dropped so the middle class could afford cars. By 1937, 511,000 cars were produced by Britain.
- More people traveled for pleasure.
- People moved to suburbs and commuted to work in the cities.
B. Airplanes Transform Travel
- 1919: two British pilots made the first successful flight across the Atlantic.
- 1927: Charles Lindbergh made a 33 hour flight from New York to Paris
- Amelia Earhart was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic.
C. Radio and Movies Dominate Popular Entertainment
- 1920: first commercial radio station KDKA began broadcasting.
- In the 1920's many countries from Cuba to Japan produced movies.
- In Europe movies were art in Hollywood they were entertainment
- Sound came to movies in the late 1920's
Section 2: A World Wide Depression
1. Postalwar Europe
- WWI left many European countries bankrupt.
A. Unstable New Democracies
- 1914-1918: Europe's last absolute rulers had been overthrown.
- First of new government was formed in 1917 Russia
- Some countries had a dozen or more political groups
- When no single party won a majority, a coalition government was needed.
- Frequent changes in government made it hard for democratic countries to develop strong leadership.
2. The Weimar Republic
- 1919:Germany's New Democratic government was set up.
- Millions of Germans blamed the Weimar Republic for the country's defeat.
A. Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany
- In order to pay for the economic problems caused by war, Germany printed money, causing paper money's value to decrease.
- Severe inflation set in.
- In Berlin a loaf of bread costs: 1918: less than one mark. 1922: more than 160 marks. 1923: 200 billion marks.
- As a result, Germans questioned he value of their New Democratic government.
B. Attempts at Economic Stability
- Germany recovered from the 1923 inflation thanks to the work of an international committee.
- The Dawes Plan, created by Charles Dawes, provided for a $200 million loan from American banks. It was put into effect in 1924.
C. Efforts at a Lasting Peace
- In 1925, Germany and France's ministers met and signed a treaty promising they would never make war against each other again.
- Almost every country in the world signed and pledged "to renounce war as an instrument of national policy.
3. Financial Collapse
- In 1919 the US economy weakened as did the whole world's.
A. A Flawed US Economy
- Because of America's uneven distribution of their new wealth, most families were too poor to buy goods being produced causing factory production to go down.
- During the 1920's overproduction affected American farmers as well.
- Since farmers couldn't sell their crops, they couldn't pay their bank loans that kept them in business.
B. The Stock Market Crashes
- In 1929, New York City's Wall Street was the financial capital of the world.
- Middle income people started buying stock.
- October 24, 1929 people started panicking because stock prices got so low.
- By this time, everyone wanted to sell their stocks and no one wanted to buy.
- The stock market crashed as a result.
4. The Great Depression
- After the stock market crashed unemployment rates rose, and the Great Depression followed.
- By 1932, factory production was cut in half.
- By 1933, 1/4 of all American workers had no jobs.
A. A Global Depression
- America's economic crash effected the whole world.
- World trade dropped by 65% because several countries raised tariffs.
- This caused unemployment rates to soar.
B. Effects Throughout the World
- Because of dependence on American loans and investments, Germany and Austria were hit hard.
- The crash was felt by Latin America as well
5. The World Confronts the Crisis
A. Britain Takes Steps to Improve its Economy.
- Britain was severely hit by the Depression.
- Thanks to the National Government, by 1937, unemployment had been cut in half and production had risen above 1929 levels.
B. France Responds to Economic Crisis
- Even though France had a more self sufficient economy by 1935, one million French workers were unemployed.
- In 1936, moderates, socialists, and communists created a coalition called the Popular Front.
C. Socialist Governments Find Solutions
- Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway's socialist governments met economic challenges.
- To pay for raised pensions for the elderly and unemployment insurance increases, subsides for housing and other welfare benefits, all citizens were taxed.
D. Recovery in the US
- Franklin D. Roosevelt's confident manner appealed to millions of Americans.
Section 3: Fascism Rises in Europe
1. Fascism's Rise in Italy
- Fascism was a New militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader.
- Fascists believed that nations must struggle
- In each nation, they wore uniforms, used special salutes, and held mass rallies.
- Believed in social classes.
A. Mussolini Takes Control
- Fscism's in Italy was fueled by the failure to win large territorial gains at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.
- Italians wanted a leader who would do something because their democratic government seemed helpless.
- Benito Mussolini boldly promised to rescue Italy.
- In October, 1922, about 30,000 Fascists marched on Rome, demanding King Victor Emmanuel III to put Mussolini in charge.
- Mussolini legally took power that same day.
B. Il Duce's Leadership
- Mussolini outlawed all political power except Fascists.
- Radio stations were forced to broadcast only Fascist doctrines.
- Mussolini never had total control
2. Hitler Rises to Power in Germany
- Hitler volunteered for the German army and was awarded the Iron Cross bravery award twice.
A. The Rise of the Nazis
- In 1919, Hitler joined a political group called the National Socialist German workers' party or Nazis for short.
- The party adopted the swastika as the symbol
- Nazis also had a private militia called Brown Shirts.
- When Hitler tried to seize power of Munich in 1923, he was arrested and sentenced to only 5 years in prison but served less than 9 months.
- In his book, Hitler wrote that German were the master race and Jews, Slavs, and Gypsies were inferior.
- When the Germany economy collapsed Germans turned to Hitler; hoping for firm leadership
3. Hitler Becomes Chancellor
- By 1932, Nazis became the largest political party
- In 1933, Hitler became the leader legally.
- Hitler used his new power to turn Germany into a totalitarian state.
- An elite black uniformed unit called the SS was created and in 1934, they arrested and murdered hundreds of Hitler's enemies.
- The Nazis quickly took command of the economy.
- Hitler put millions of Germans to work building highways, factories, made weapons, and served in the military.
- Unemployment dropped from 6 to 1.5 million in 1936.
A. The Führeer Is Supreme
- Hitler wanted control over every aspect of German life.
- Schoolchildren had to join the Hitler Youth (for boys) and the League of German Girls.
B. Hitler Makes War on the Jews
- A key part of Nazi idealology was the hatred of Jews.
- In 1933, the nazis passed laws depriving Jews of most of their rights.
- On November 8, 1938, nazi mobs attacked Jews and destroyed thousands of Jewish owned buildings.
4. Other Countries Fall to Dictators
- 1919: Hungary was dictated by Admiral Mikós Horthy
- Poland: 1926, Marshal Jozef Piludski became dictator
- Kings turned to strong man rule in Yougoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, and Romania.
- 1935: the last democracy in Eastern Europe stood in Czechoslovakia.
- Democracy survived also in Britain, France, and the Scandinavian countries.
- By the mid 1930's powerful world nations were split in two groups; democratic and totalitarian.
Section 4: Aggressors Invade Nations
1. Japan Seeks an Empire
During the 1920's the Japanese government became more democratic
- It still had its weaknesses though, its constitution put strict limits on the prime minister and the cabinets powers.
- Military leaders reported only to the emperor.
A Militarists Take Control of Japan
- Many Japanese blamed the government for the Great Depression.
- The Military gained control of the country.
- Instead of a forceful leader like Hitler, the militarists made the emperor the symbol of state power.
- Japan's militarists wanted to solve the country's economic problems through foreign expansion.
- They planned to conquer China.
B. Japan Invades Manchuria
- In 1931, the Japanese arm seized Manchuria even though Japan's parliament disagreed.
- They then set up a puppet government.
- Engineers and technicians began arriving in large numbers to build mines and factories.
- When Manchuria was seized by Japan, many League of Nations members protested.
- Japan ignored them and withdrew from the league in 1933.
C. Japan Invades China
- 4 years later, a war began between Japan and China because of a border incident.
- Even though China's army had one million soldiers, they were no match for the Japanese army.
- Beijing, Nanjing, and other northern cities fell to Japan in 1937.
- Thousands were killed in Nanjing by the Japanese.
2. European Aggressors on the March
- Mussolini dreamed of building a colonial empire in Africa like Britain and France.
A. Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia.
- The Ethiopians successfully resisted an Italian attempt at conquest during the 1890's.
- Trying to retaliate, Mussolini ordered a massive invasion of Ethiopia in 1935.
- Ethiopia asked the League of Nations for help but they did nothing.
B. Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty
- In 1935, the Fuhreer announced that Germany wouldn't obey the restrictions of the Versailles Treaty.
- Even though the treaty forbid the Germans to enter Rhineland, Hitler decided to anyways in 1936.
- The French were unwilling to risk war while the British urged an appeasement.
- Hitler's growing strength convinced Mussolini to become an ally to Germany.
- By 1936, Germany, Italy, and japan became known as the Axis Powers.
C. Civil War Erupts in Spain
- In July 1936, Spanish army leaders who favored fascist style government, joined General Francisco Franco in a revolt, beginning a Civil War.
- Hitler and Mussolini sent troops to help Franco's forces which were called Nationalists.
- In early 1939, republican resistance collapsed and France became Spain's Fascist dictator.
3. Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace
- Britain and France tried to avoid war instead of taking a stand against Fascists
A. US Follows an Isolationist Party
- Many Americans supported isolationism, the belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided.
- In 1935, Congress passed 3 neutrality acts which banned loans and the sale of arms to nations at war.
B. The German Reich Expands
- Even though the Treaty of Versailles prohibited a union between Austria and Germany, in 1938, Hitler annexed Austria.
- In 1938, Hitler demanded that part of Czechoslovakia be given to Germany, the Czechs refused and asked France for help.
C. Britain and France Again Chose Appeasement
- The Munich Conference was held on September 29, 1938.
- The British Prime Minister; Neville Chamberlain believed that he could preserve peace by giving into Hitler's demand.
- In exchange for Studentland, Hitler pledged to respect Czechoslovakia's new boarders.
- Less than 6 months after the Munich meeting, Hitler took Czechoslovakia.
D. Nazis and Soviets Sign Nonaggression Pact.
- Britain and France asked the Soviet Union to join them in stopping Hitler's aggression.
- On August 23, 1939, Fascist Germany and Communist Russia's leaders signed a Nonaggression Act.