Years of Crisis by: abby marcum

Section 1: Postwar Uncertainty

1. A New Revolution in Science:

  • During the 20th Century, Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud had a large impact on science advantances

A. Impact of Einstein's Theory of Relativity

  • Offered new ideas on space, time, energy, and matter.
  • in 1905, Einstein realized that even though the speed of light may seem constant, space and time seem constant but they are not. (theory of relativity)
  • His ideas had implications for science and how people see the world.
  • Uncertainty and relativity replaced Isaac Newton's belief of a world operating according to the absolute laws of motion and gravity.

B. Influence of Freudian Psychology

  • From Frued's experiences of treating psychological patients, he constructed the theory that much of human behavior is irrational.
  • The irrational part of the mind was called unconscious, one of the drives there is the pleasure seeking drive.

2. Literature in the 1920's

  • People feared the future and had doubts about their religious beliefs because of how brutal WWI was.
  • T.S.Elliot described postwar life as a barren wasteland drained of hope and faith
  • "The Second Coming" was written by William Butler Yeats. It said: "Things fall apart; the center cannot hold;/ Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world."

A. Writers Reflect Society's Concerns

  • Because of war, many writers like Franz Kafka wrote eerie novels.
  • James Joyce wrote the novel "Ulysses" showing Freud's influences of the unconscious theory.

B. Thinkers React to Uncertainties

  • Many thinkers turned to existailism; the theory that there's no universal meaning to life.
  • Each person creates their own meaning in life through choices they made and actions taken
  • Friedrich Nietzache urged a return to the values of pride, assertiveness, and strength.
  • those ideas had a great influence on Italian and German government in the 1920s and 1930s.

3. Revolution in the Arts

A. Artists Rebel Against Tradition

  • Painters were tired of realistic paintings so they started using the style of Expressionism.
  • Cubism transformed natural shapes into geometric forms.
  • Surrealists tried to call on the unconscious part of their mind.

B. Composers Try New Styles

  • In both classical and popular music, composers moved away from traditional styles.
  • Jazz was developed by African Americans in New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago musicians.

4. Society Challenges Convention

  • New ideas and ways of life lead to a new kind of individual freedom during the 1920's

A. Women's Roles Change

  • After war, women's suffrage became a law in Germany, Sweden, and Austria.
  • Women started wearing shorter, looser clothes, short hair, makeup, drove cars, and smoked in public.
  • Women sought new careers.

5. Technological Advances Improve Life

  • New drugs and medical treatments helped millions of people postwar.

A. The Automobile Alters Society

  • Cars were now sleek and brightly polished, complete with headlights and chrome plated bumpers
  • Prices dropped so the middle class could afford cars. By 1937, 511,000 cars were produced by Britain.
  • More people traveled for pleasure.
  • People moved to suburbs and commuted to work in the cities.

B. Airplanes Transform Travel

  • 1919: two British pilots made the first successful flight across the Atlantic.
  • 1927: Charles Lindbergh made a 33 hour flight from New York to Paris
  • Amelia Earhart was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic.

C. Radio and Movies Dominate Popular Entertainment

  • 1920: first commercial radio station KDKA began broadcasting.
  • In the 1920's many countries from Cuba to Japan produced movies.
  • In Europe movies were art in Hollywood they were entertainment
  • Sound came to movies in the late 1920's

Section 2: A World Wide Depression

1. Postalwar Europe

  • WWI left many European countries bankrupt.

A. Unstable New Democracies

  • 1914-1918: Europe's last absolute rulers had been overthrown.
  • First of new government was formed in 1917 Russia
  • Some countries had a dozen or more political groups
  • When no single party won a majority, a coalition government was needed.
  • Frequent changes in government made it hard for democratic countries to develop strong leadership.

2. The Weimar Republic

  • 1919:Germany's New Democratic government was set up.
  • Millions of Germans blamed the Weimar Republic for the country's defeat.

A. Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany

  • In order to pay for the economic problems caused by war, Germany printed money, causing paper money's value to decrease.
  • Severe inflation set in.
  • In Berlin a loaf of bread costs: 1918: less than one mark. 1922: more than 160 marks. 1923: 200 billion marks.
  • As a result, Germans questioned he value of their New Democratic government.

B. Attempts at Economic Stability

  • Germany recovered from the 1923 inflation thanks to the work of an international committee.
  • The Dawes Plan, created by Charles Dawes, provided for a $200 million loan from American banks. It was put into effect in 1924.

C. Efforts at a Lasting Peace

  • In 1925, Germany and France's ministers met and signed a treaty promising they would never make war against each other again.
  • Almost every country in the world signed and pledged "to renounce war as an instrument of national policy.

3. Financial Collapse

  • In 1919 the US economy weakened as did the whole world's.

A. A Flawed US Economy

  • Because of America's uneven distribution of their new wealth, most families were too poor to buy goods being produced causing factory production to go down.
  • During the 1920's overproduction affected American farmers as well.
  • Since farmers couldn't sell their crops, they couldn't pay their bank loans that kept them in business.

B. The Stock Market Crashes

  • In 1929, New York City's Wall Street was the financial capital of the world.
  • Middle income people started buying stock.
  • October 24, 1929 people started panicking because stock prices got so low.
  • By this time, everyone wanted to sell their stocks and no one wanted to buy.
  • The stock market crashed as a result.

4. The Great Depression

  • After the stock market crashed unemployment rates rose, and the Great Depression followed.
  • By 1932, factory production was cut in half.
  • By 1933, 1/4 of all American workers had no jobs.

A. A Global Depression

  • America's economic crash effected the whole world.
  • World trade dropped by 65% because several countries raised tariffs.
  • This caused unemployment rates to soar.

B. Effects Throughout the World

  • Because of dependence on American loans and investments, Germany and Austria were hit hard.
  • The crash was felt by Latin America as well

5. The World Confronts the Crisis

A. Britain Takes Steps to Improve its Economy.

  • Britain was severely hit by the Depression.
  • Thanks to the National Government, by 1937, unemployment had been cut in half and production had risen above 1929 levels.

B. France Responds to Economic Crisis

  • Even though France had a more self sufficient economy by 1935, one million French workers were unemployed.
  • In 1936, moderates, socialists, and communists created a coalition called the Popular Front.

C. Socialist Governments Find Solutions

  • Scandinavian countries of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway's socialist governments met economic challenges.
  • To pay for raised pensions for the elderly and unemployment insurance increases, subsides for housing and other welfare benefits, all citizens were taxed.

D. Recovery in the US

  • Franklin D. Roosevelt's confident manner appealed to millions of Americans.

Section 3: Fascism Rises in Europe

1. Fascism's Rise in Italy

  • Fascism was a New militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader.
  • Fascists believed that nations must struggle
  • In each nation, they wore uniforms, used special salutes, and held mass rallies.
  • Believed in social classes.

A. Mussolini Takes Control

  • Fscism's in Italy was fueled by the failure to win large territorial gains at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.
  • Italians wanted a leader who would do something because their democratic government seemed helpless.
  • Benito Mussolini boldly promised to rescue Italy.
  • In October, 1922, about 30,000 Fascists marched on Rome, demanding King Victor Emmanuel III to put Mussolini in charge.
  • Mussolini legally took power that same day.

B. Il Duce's Leadership

  • Mussolini outlawed all political power except Fascists.
  • Radio stations were forced to broadcast only Fascist doctrines.
  • Mussolini never had total control

2. Hitler Rises to Power in Germany

  • Hitler volunteered for the German army and was awarded the Iron Cross bravery award twice.

A. The Rise of the Nazis

  • In 1919, Hitler joined a political group called the National Socialist German workers' party or Nazis for short.
  • The party adopted the swastika as the symbol
  • Nazis also had a private militia called Brown Shirts.
  • When Hitler tried to seize power of Munich in 1923, he was arrested and sentenced to only 5 years in prison but served less than 9 months.
  • In his book, Hitler wrote that German were the master race and Jews, Slavs, and Gypsies were inferior.
  • When the Germany economy collapsed Germans turned to Hitler; hoping for firm leadership

3. Hitler Becomes Chancellor

  • By 1932, Nazis became the largest political party
  • In 1933, Hitler became the leader legally.
  • Hitler used his new power to turn Germany into a totalitarian state.
  • An elite black uniformed unit called the SS was created and in 1934, they arrested and murdered hundreds of Hitler's enemies.
  • The Nazis quickly took command of the economy.
  • Hitler put millions of Germans to work building highways, factories, made weapons, and served in the military.
  • Unemployment dropped from 6 to 1.5 million in 1936.

A. The Führeer Is Supreme

  • Hitler wanted control over every aspect of German life.
  • Schoolchildren had to join the Hitler Youth (for boys) and the League of German Girls.

B. Hitler Makes War on the Jews

  • A key part of Nazi idealology was the hatred of Jews.
  • In 1933, the nazis passed laws depriving Jews of most of their rights.
  • On November 8, 1938, nazi mobs attacked Jews and destroyed thousands of Jewish owned buildings.

4. Other Countries Fall to Dictators

  • 1919: Hungary was dictated by Admiral Mikós Horthy
  • Poland: 1926, Marshal Jozef Piludski became dictator
  • Kings turned to strong man rule in Yougoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, and Romania.
  • 1935: the last democracy in Eastern Europe stood in Czechoslovakia.
  • Democracy survived also in Britain, France, and the Scandinavian countries.
  • By the mid 1930's powerful world nations were split in two groups; democratic and totalitarian.

Section 4: Aggressors Invade Nations

1. Japan Seeks an Empire

During the 1920's the Japanese government became more democratic

  • It still had its weaknesses though, its constitution put strict limits on the prime minister and the cabinets powers.
  • Military leaders reported only to the emperor.

A Militarists Take Control of Japan

  • Many Japanese blamed the government for the Great Depression.
  • The Military gained control of the country.
  • Instead of a forceful leader like Hitler, the militarists made the emperor the symbol of state power.
  • Japan's militarists wanted to solve the country's economic problems through foreign expansion.
  • They planned to conquer China.

B. Japan Invades Manchuria

  • In 1931, the Japanese arm seized Manchuria even though Japan's parliament disagreed.
  • They then set up a puppet government.
  • Engineers and technicians began arriving in large numbers to build mines and factories.
  • When Manchuria was seized by Japan, many League of Nations members protested.
  • Japan ignored them and withdrew from the league in 1933.

C. Japan Invades China

  • 4 years later, a war began between Japan and China because of a border incident.
  • Even though China's army had one million soldiers, they were no match for the Japanese army.
  • Beijing, Nanjing, and other northern cities fell to Japan in 1937.
  • Thousands were killed in Nanjing by the Japanese.

2. European Aggressors on the March

  • Mussolini dreamed of building a colonial empire in Africa like Britain and France.

A. Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia.

  • The Ethiopians successfully resisted an Italian attempt at conquest during the 1890's.
  • Trying to retaliate, Mussolini ordered a massive invasion of Ethiopia in 1935.
  • Ethiopia asked the League of Nations for help but they did nothing.

B. Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty

  • In 1935, the Fuhreer announced that Germany wouldn't obey the restrictions of the Versailles Treaty.
  • Even though the treaty forbid the Germans to enter Rhineland, Hitler decided to anyways in 1936.
  • The French were unwilling to risk war while the British urged an appeasement.
  • Hitler's growing strength convinced Mussolini to become an ally to Germany.
  • By 1936, Germany, Italy, and japan became known as the Axis Powers.

C. Civil War Erupts in Spain

  • In July 1936, Spanish army leaders who favored fascist style government, joined General Francisco Franco in a revolt, beginning a Civil War.
  • Hitler and Mussolini sent troops to help Franco's forces which were called Nationalists.
  • In early 1939, republican resistance collapsed and France became Spain's Fascist dictator.

3. Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace

  • Britain and France tried to avoid war instead of taking a stand against Fascists

A. US Follows an Isolationist Party

  • Many Americans supported isolationism, the belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided.
  • In 1935, Congress passed 3 neutrality acts which banned loans and the sale of arms to nations at war.

B. The German Reich Expands

  • Even though the Treaty of Versailles prohibited a union between Austria and Germany, in 1938, Hitler annexed Austria.
  • In 1938, Hitler demanded that part of Czechoslovakia be given to Germany, the Czechs refused and asked France for help.

C. Britain and France Again Chose Appeasement

  • The Munich Conference was held on September 29, 1938.
  • The British Prime Minister; Neville Chamberlain believed that he could preserve peace by giving into Hitler's demand.
  • In exchange for Studentland, Hitler pledged to respect Czechoslovakia's new boarders.
  • Less than 6 months after the Munich meeting, Hitler took Czechoslovakia.

D. Nazis and Soviets Sign Nonaggression Pact.

  • Britain and France asked the Soviet Union to join them in stopping Hitler's aggression.
  • On August 23, 1939, Fascist Germany and Communist Russia's leaders signed a Nonaggression Act.


Created with images by frankvellis - "uniforms military world war 1" • nwpuzzlr - "1959 Big Snow Quad" • statelibrarywa - "Memory on our captivity" • Archives New Zealand - "Major General Sir Bernard Cyril Freyberg VC" • TINTYPEPHOTOS - "english civil war reenactment historical"

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