Karyotype, Genotype and Phenotype
The karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of any organism.
Genotype is the genes responsible for a particular trait while phenotype is the physical characteristics of the trait. The genotype can drastically change the phenotype because if the gene for blue eyes is changed in the genotype, then the phenotype will also change.
Klinefetter's syndrome is a genetic disorder in which there is an extra copy of the x chromosome in men. This means that the person with it will be smaller than the average male and sound like a female when talking. Klinefetter's syndrome is neither dominant nor recessive.
Down syndrome is when there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. This can cause developmental delays and learning disabilities. There is no cure. Down syndrome is both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive.
Colorblindness is when there is a defect in the genes of the eye cells. Because of this, they can't see certain colors. It effects men more than women because women have two x chromosomes and if there is a defect in one, the other will compensate for it. Red-green colorblindness is a sex linked recessive trait while blue-yellow colorblindness is an autosomal dominant trait.