Following the assassination of Lincoln, his V.P., Andrew Jackson, became the president. Lincoln and Jackson were very contrasting in personalities and backgrounds, Lincoln was educated and was anti-slavery, while Johnson was a slave owner himself. So this change in perspective was a hostile shift for a already broken nation, therefor aiding in the failure of reconstruction.
A positive effect during this time was congress passing the Freedman's Bureau, this act was in place to counter the Southern efforts to restrict former slaves, called the Black Codes. The purpose of the Freedman's Bureau was to provide Blacks education and training to aid them in their transition from slaves to free people. I think this is huge, it demonstrates how even at this time of inequality, the government was working efficiently. Andrew Jackson wanted to stop all aid to Blacks however through the concept of checks and balances, congress was able to pass acts to actually aid them on this remarkable journey.
One huge failure during this era was the ability that southerns had to pass laws restricting Blacks, they could swing around certain laws and regulations and create their own swayed versions of them so that they would still be superior to whites. For example the Black Codes, these restricted Blacks to certain areas and still held them in a confined was even though they were free men. Where was the power that the state has over the city, or even the power that the federal government could hold over state governments? Even though congress was passing all these laws to aid Blacks southerners still found their way around it.
The Civil War caused brutal losses for both the North and the South, Reconstruction was in theory supposed to rebuild both sides and unite the nation. Reconstruction also called for Blacks to earn their rights such as humane treatment and their right to vote. Even though Reconstruction failed there was still some progress, for example the passing of the 14th and 15th amendments.
The mistreatment of Blacks was a huge issue at this point in time, but it is very similar to the mistreatment of Native Americans during westward expansion and even in the earliest times of American History. For example, as the KKK was limiting rights of Blacks and harming them, Bacon's rebellion did the same thing to Native Americans. In both situations one group of peoples rights are put to the ground by another group, in both instances, White.