African American Civil Rights in the 60's By: Emerson Perez and Jimena Ruvalcaba

Civil Rights Activists: Malcolm X, Martin Luther King Jr., Freedom Riders, The Black Panthers, and Amelia Boynton.

"If not us, then who? If not now, then when?... Will someone else's children have to risk their lives instead of us risking ours?" -Freedom Rider, John Lewis

Malcolm X was a African-American leader and prominent figure in the Nation of Islam, he articulated concepts of race pride and black nationalism in the 1950s and '60s. He fought for civil rights until his assassination in 1965.

Martin Luther King Jr. was a Baptist minister and social activist who played a key role in the American civil rights movement. He sought equality for African Americans, the economically disadvantaged and victims of injustice through non- violent and peaceful protest. Martin Luther King Jr. promoted civil rights until his assassination in 1968.

Freedom Riders: In 1961 more than 400 black and white Americans risked their lives for simply traveling together on buses and trains as they journeyed through the Deep South. Deliberately violating Jim Crow laws in order to test and challenge a segregated interstate travel system, the Freedom Riders met with bitter racism and mob violence along the way, sorely testing their belief in nonviolent activism.

The Black Panthers founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale they promoted self defense and also provided effective social programs, raising people’s political and cultural consciousness, dignity and courage.

Amelia Boynton in 1964, she became both the first African-American woman and the first female Democratic candidate to run for a seat in Congress from Alabama. The following year, she helped lead a civil rights march during which she and her fellow activists were brutally beaten by state troopers, which is also known as "Bloody Sunday".

Martin Luther King, Malcolm X and Amelia Boynton's main goals were to support civil rights throughout America. The ways they accomplished there goals were by Marching and Protests through out the country. The Freedom Riders and The Black Panthers were organizations who also promoted civil rights throughout America. Theses organizations met there goals by marching having friendly protests. The Freedom Riders traveled through the Deep South and protested by using "whites-only" restrooms and lunch counters. Malcolm X promoted violence, unlike Martin Luther King Jr., Freedom Riders, and The Black Panthers who all had non-violence protest.

"The American Negro never can be blamed for his racial animosities - he is only reacting to 400 years of the conscious racism of the American whites."- Malcolm X

  • Malcolm X was arrested in 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested in 1963 because he and activist were protesting the treatment of blacks in Birmingham, Alabama.
  • In 1961 the Freedom Riders were arrested in Montgomery, Alabama, because they were in a "white only" waiting room.
  • A vast amount of Black Panthers have been arrested and they are still in jail. There are more than 20 members of the Black Panther Party members who still remain in prison.

“Only until all human beings begin to recognize themselves as human beings will prejudice be gone forever. People ask me what race I am, but there is no such thing as race. I just answer: "I’m a member of the human race.”- Amelia Boyton

1961 Freedom Riders

1992 Los Angeles Riots: On March 3, 1991 Rodney King was involved in a high speed chase with the L.A.P.D. Once he was apprehended the officers brutally beat him, while a cameraman caught it on video tape. The four officers were charged with assault with a deadly weapon, but during the trial with a predominantly white jury acquitted the officers, which resulted in the 1992 Los Angeles riots.

"Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that." -Martin Luther King Jr.

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Emerson Perez
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