Section 1: Postwar Uncertainty
1. A New Revolution in Science
Albert Einstein and Sigmund had impacts on the 20th century. They were part of the scientific revolution.
A) Impact of Einstein's Theory of Relativity - A German-born physicist offered ideas of space, time, energy, and matter. They found that light travels at the same speed no matter the direction it is moving in relation to the earth. The year 1905 Einstein theorized that even though the speed of light is constant everything else is not. When measured relative to and object space and time can change. In the theory of relativity motion is the most important part. This replaced Isaac Newton's comforting belief of a world operating with absolute laws of gravity and motion.
B) Influence of Freudian Pyschology -
Sigmund Frued's ideas were as important as Einstein's. He treated his patients who had psychological issues. He came up with theories about the human mind. He thought much behavior was irrational, he called this part of the mind unconscious. In this part a lot of drives exist. By the 1920s his ideas had become widespread.
2) literature in the 1920s
Brutality of war caused philosophers to question ideas. Some expressed their anxiety by displaying disturbing visions.
A) Writers Reflect Society's Concerns - This horror made a great impression on many. Many novels showed the influence of theories. The book Ulysses focuses on consciousness. Joyce made a bold attempt to copy workings of the human mind.
B) Thinkers React to Uncertainty -
Some philosophers turned to philosophy which is know as existenalism. Jean Paul was a major leader of this. They believed there was no universal meaning to life. So each person would make their own meaning. They were influenced by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. In the 1880s he stated that the Western ideas had stifled their creativity. These ideas attracted attention in the 20th century. It also has a great impact in Italy and Germany's politics.
3) Revolution in the Arts
Many new directions in paintings and music began in the prewar period.
A) Artist Rebels Against Tradition -The artists went against earlier realistic styles. They wanted to show inner world emotion and imagination rather than be realistic. Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky would use bold colors and distorted forms. A group of men, inspired by African art, founded cubism in 1907. This changed shapes into geometric form. Things were broken down and made with sharp edges. Usually several views were shown at once. Surrealism was an art movement that wanted to connect the world of dreams with real life. This meant above or beyond reality. Their paintings had and eerie and dreamlike quality and made everything unrealistic.
B) Composers Try New Styles - Composers from classical and popular left traditional. During this a new style emerged called jazz in the U.S. it was created by mainly African Americans in New Orleans. The beat of jazz captured a new freedom of the age.
4) society challenges convention
WW1 seemed to disrupt the traditional way. New ideas formed about life in the 1920s. The young people were more willing to break away from traditional ways.
A) Women's Roles Change - The times showed clearly the changes women were making in their own lives. With their help in the war it helped them tremendously win the right to vote. Women's suffrage became a law in many countries including the United States. Women wandered away from restrictive clothing. They began cutting their hair short and wearing loose clothing. They also began to drive cars, smoke, drink and even wear makeup. Even though they lived traditionally, the wanted greater freedom.
5) technology advances improve life
Scientists developed new drugs and medical treatments during WW1 which helped millions. These advances helped improve transportation and communication.
A) The Automobile Alters Society - The automobile had a lot of innovations and improvements. For example electricstarters, air-filled tires, more powerful engines, and etc. In Britain cars were only owned by the rich. Factories had produced 34,000 cars in 1913. Soon after the war the prices began to drop and soon the middle class could afford cars to. By the year of 1937 Britain was producing 511,000 cars a year. With the increase of people using cars people began to travel more for pleasure purposes.
B) Airplanes Transform Travel - Traveling by air became a goal after the war. The year 1919 2 brothers made the very first successful flight across the Atlantic. By 1927 another pilot captured attention with a 33-hour flight. Most passenger planes were established during the 1920s. In the beginning only rich could fly. In 1932 Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly.
C) Radio and Mobies Dominate Popular Entertainment - Guglielmo Marconi was created the first successful experiment with the radio in 1895. The year 1920 there was the first commercial on a radio station. Eventually every major city had stations broadcasting news, plays, and sports. Most families them owned a radio. Movies were also big in the 1920s. In places like Europe films were serious, but in the United States they were entertainment. The king of the silent screen was Charlie Chaplin. The late 1920s they added sound.
Section 2: A Worldwide Depression
1) Postwar europe
The cost of WW1 was immense considering human and economic suffering. It left every major European country bankrupt. Plus their domination in war declined.
A) Unstable New Democracies - At the end of the war there was a sudden rise of democracies. The last absolute ruler had been overthrown in Europe. The new government was first formed in Russia. Many had no experience with representative government. For many generations there had only been one ruler. Some places had multiple political parties because they couldn't decide on just one. This was called coalition government - when no single party won a majority there was a temporary alliance of several parties. These never lasted very long because with all the different opinions they could never agree. Eventually they decided to quit democracy and go to authoritarian.
2) The Weimar republic
The new democratic government was set up in 1919 in Germany. It was named Weimar Republic after the place where the national assembly met. They had a serious weakness from the start. Many Germans blamed government for their defeat and humiliation.
A) Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany - They faced many economic problems. Germany did not increase taxes so they simply started printing money. The currency fell and the value started decreasing. They needed more money o even buy basic goods. People took wheelbarrows full of money just to purchase food. They began to question their government.
B) Attempts at Economic Stability - They recovered from 1923 because of the international committee. The Dawes Plan gave them a $200 million loan. This was put in, in 1924 which in turn slowed inflation. By the year 1929 they were back to normal.
C) Efforts at a LAsting Peace - Germany and France tried to improve their relations while prosperity returned. They signed a treaty saying they would never go into war again. Although this treaty meant they had to enforce provisions. The League of Nations were the ones that enforced it, but since the United States didn't join it weakened.
3) financial collapse
America's economic prosperity increased, since this the whole world's system may collapse and by the year 1929 it did.
A) A Flawed U.S. Economy - There were many weaknesses in the U.S. economy not even considering prosperity. There was uneven distribution of wealth, overproduction, and Americans were starting to buy less. America was producing nearly half of the world's industrial goods. This rising led to huge profits, but this new wealth was not distributed evenly. About 60% of America made less than $2,000 each year. So many of the families were to poor to buy anything. Since no one was purchasing anything the store owners cut back orders, which in turn factories produced less and didn't need the workers. It soon became a downhill effect no job means no money. Farmers were unable to pay bank loans and sell crops.
B) The Stock Market Crashes - New York City Wall Street was the capital of finances. The worked fine as long as the stocks were high. If they ever had fell they had to pay off the loans. By the year 1929 they began to think prices were extremely high. They wanted to sell people stocks but no one wanted them. After that there was a record of about 16 million stocks sold, but then it crashed.
4) the great depression
People could not pay money the owed, the stocks they bought were now useless. After the big crash everything declined and the unemployment rate rose. This would become well known as The Great Depression. The crash is not the only thing that caused the depression the collapse of the economy also did. Many farmers lost their land and one-fourth of Americans had no jobs.
A) A Global Depression - This collapse sent shock around the world. U.S. Congress placed high tariffs on imported goods. Countries that depended on the U.S. for goods started to suffer. Al world trade dropped 65%, which caused further economic downturn and unemployment to increase.
B) Effects Throughout the World - Because Germany and Austria still had war debts and depended on the U.S. they were hit hard. Austria's banks failed and in Asia workers suffered. Demand for Latin American products caused prices to collapse.
5) the world confronts the crisis
The depression caused each country to face a crisis in their own way.
A) Britain Takes Steps to Improve Its Economy - Depression hit Britain hard so they elected a multiparty coalition which was called the National Government. They passed things to regulate currency and lowered interest rates to encourage growth.
B) France Responds to Economic Crisis - They had a more self sufficient economy unlike Britain. They were less dependent on trade but there was still one million unemployed. The politicians were scared at the rise of antidemocratic forces. Prices began to rise, unemployment was still high, and they preserved their democratic government.
C) Socialist Governments Find Solutions - The socialists in Scandinavian countries met the challenge of depression successfully. They made recovery programs, kept people employed, raised pensions for elderly, and increased insurance. They increased taxes for all citizens and the democracy remained.
D) Recovery in the United States - The first election took place in 1932 after the depression and they elected Franklin D. Roosevelt. His confidence appealed to many who were still shaken by the depression. He immediately began a program called the New Deal. Public works projects helped to provide jobs. They thought government spending would start a recovery and make some more jobs. The deal eventually reformed the American system. His leadership preserved the faith in the democratic system. It established him as a leader in a world full of ruthless dictators.
Section 3: Fascism Rises In Europe
1) Fascism's rise in italy
Fascism a political movement that emphasized loyalty to its leader. Most shared ideas and preached for nationalism. They thought peaceful states were doomed and and nations must struggle. It was similar to communism. Boy had dictators, denied individual rights, and had a one-party rule. Unlike communists they did not seek a classless society. Parties made up of aristocrats and industrialists. They were also nationalists hoping to reunite workers worldwide.
A) Mussolini Takes Control - The rise in Italy was fueled by bitter disappointment. With inflation and unemployment on the rise it caused social unrest. Their democratic government seemed helpless, they wanted a leader who could help. Newspaper editor and politician, Benito Mussolini, promised to help Italy. He founded the Fascist party in 1919. These groups would attack communists and socialists on the streets. He played on the fear of workers. Hoping to win supposed from the middle class. In the year 1922 about 30,000 of these Fascists marched on Rome. They demanded Mussolini be put in charge of government. They decided he could help the dynasty survive.
B) II Duce's Leadership - Mussolini now known as II Duce. Abolished democracy and abolished the political parties except for Fascists. The radio stations were only allowed to broadcast Fascist doctrines. He outlawed strikes and sought control of the economy. He never had full control like achieved by Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union or Adolf Hitler and Germany.
2) Hitler rises to power in germany
When Mussolini became dictator Hitler was barely known. He later joined the German army and received the award Iron Cross twice. Which was given for bravery.
A) The Rise of the Nazis - By the end of the war he had settled in Munich. He joined a political group which shared his belief that Germany needed to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism. They became known as the National Socialist German Wokers' Party and more commonly known as Nazi. It formed the German brand of fascism and became know as Nazism. They adopted the swastika as their symbol. They created a private militia called the storm troopers. His success of being an organizer led him to be chosen the leader. He plotted to seize power in Munich which led him to be arrested and serve in prison for less than 9 months. While in jail he wrote the Mein Kampf, the book set forth his beliefs and goals for Germany. He believed the "Aryans" were a master race and anyone besides that were inferior for example Jews, slaves, and etc. He thought Germany was to crowded and needed space. After leaving prison he revived the Nazi party, most people ignored his angry messages. After American loans stopped Germany crumbled and turned to Hitler for help.
3) hitler becomes chancellor
The Nazis were the largest political party by the year 1932. Leaders thought they could control Hitler. After in office Hitler called for new elections hoping to win a majority parliament. About six days before election a fire destroyed the building where they meet. They blamed communists and put in a fear and the Nazis won a slim majority. He used this power to turn Germany into a totalitarian state. Meanwhile a unit called the SS was formed. They were loyal only to Hitler. The Nazis secret police sacred everyone into obedience. Hitler then took total control of the economy and evry citizen and put them to work.
A) The Führer Is Supreme - he wanted more then economical and political power. He wanted to control every aspect of German life, and even shape the public opinion of himself. He turned every thing into propaganda tools, even if a book wasn't conformed with Nazi it was burned. Kids had to join Hitler Youth for boys and the League of German Girls. He believed the struggle brought victory to the strong. He changed philosophy to support his use of brute force.
B) Hitler Makes War on the Jews - The hatred of anti-Semitism and Jews filed the Nazi ideology. Although the Jew population was less than one percent they used them as scapegoats for all of Germany's troubles. In 1933 they deprived almost all of the Jews rights. The night of November 9, 1938 Nazi mobs attacked Jews in their homes and in the streets. Destroying thousands of buildings. This was called Kristallnacht, Night of the Broken Glass. This signaled the real start of eliminating Jews from the German life.
4) Other CounTries fall to dictatOrs
In Italy and Germany the Fascists were taking over. The nations in Eastern Europe were also falling to dictators. In Hungary in 1919 military forces and wealthy landowners joined to make postwar dictator. Only in Britain, France, and the Scandinavian countries did democracy survive. By mid-1930s the world was split between democratic and totalitarian. Although dictators denied rights they never got as brutal as Russian Communists or the Nazis.
Section 4: Aggresors Invade Nations
1) japan seeks an empire
In the 1920s Japan became more democratic. They signed an international treaty to respect China's borders. Their parliament had many weaknesses, however their constitution had strict limits on power. Civilian leaders had very little control on armed forces.
A) Militarists Take Control of Japan - As long as they were prosperous their civilian government kept power. Many Japanese blamed he government when the Great Depression came in 1929. Military leaders won control of the country. The militarists didn't try to create a new type of government unlike the Fascists. They everything restored to traditional ways. Instead of being forceful like Hitler they made emperor the symbol of state power. Although they were extreme nationalists like Hitler and Mussolini. They wanted to solve their economic problems. They planned a Pacific empire. The empire would give Japan supplies and room.
B) Japan Invades Manchuria - The business invested in China's northeast province called Manchuria. The army seized it in 1931, it was full of iron and coal. They seized the land even though Japanese parliament said no. They made a puppet government, soon engineers arrived and made factories and mines. This attack was the first direct challenge to the League of Nations. This league included all democracies excluding the U.S. It also included countries that were the greatest threats Germany, Japan, and Italy. When Japan seized the land many of the League protested. They ignored this and just withdrew from the League in 1933.
C) Japan Invades China - Years later a full-scale war broke between Japan and China. Japan swept through China, which had an army of 1 million, they were no match for the better equipped and trained Japanese. The Japanese troops killed and captured many in Nanjing. While some left the Chinese leader continued to fight the Japanese.
2) european agGressors on the march
The League failed to stop the Japanese and told the Fascists to create their own aggression.
A) Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia - Ethiopia was one of three African nations still independent. They had successfully resisted the Italians attempt to conquest. Mussolini ordered a big invasion on Eithiopia in October 1935. Eithiopians had only swords and spears but they were no match for tanks, guns, and poison gas which was used by the Italians. The Ethiopian leader looked to the League for help. Although the League was not okay with the fight they didn't help them. Britain allowed the Italians pass through the Suez Canal with the weapons. By giving in Britain and France hoped to remain peace.
B) Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty - Hitler had pledged he would undo the Treay of Versailles, and in March 1935 they told them they would no longer obey. Among the rules of the treaty it had a limit on the size of their army. With the League's failer to stop him he decided to take more and greater risks. Another rule was they could not enter a 30-mile-wide zone on either side of the Rhine River. The troops moved in March 7, 1936. French and British did not want to fight, Hitler admitted if they had actually challenged him he would back down. The march on Rhineland greatened Hitler's power and the balance of power was in Germany's favor. Mussolini saw Hitler's power and growth and wanted to make an alliance with Germany. Germany, Italy, and Japan became known as Axis Powers.
C) Civil War Erupts in Spain - Hitler and Mussolini testedu democracies in the Spanish Civil War. Spain declared republic in the year 1931. Fascists rule governments joined with Francisco Franco in the war that spanned over three years. Hitler and Mussolini sent airplanes, tanks, and troops in favor of Franco. The Republicans for Spain had little help from abroad. The only thing they received equipment and advisers from the Soviet Union. Some volunteers helped them fight but the Republican resistance soon fell. Which left them with Franco as their Fascist dictator.
3) democratic nations try to preserve peace
Instead of tak nana stand Britain and France tried to keep peace. They were still having issues after the Great Depression and wanted to avoid war.
A) United States Follows an Isolationist Policy - Americans supported islationalism the belief that political ties between countries should be avoided. They said that going into WW1 had been a costly error. In 1935 Congress passed three Neutrality Acts Which banned loans and the sale of arms to nations in war.
B) The German Reich Expands - November 1937, Hitler told of his plans to get Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich. The treaty had prohibited a union between Austria and Germany. Hitler she this army to Austria in March 1938 and annexed it. Britain and France ignored their promise to keep Austria independent. About 3 million German speaking people lived in Czechoslovakia. This area was the main defense against Germany. Hitler demanded that Sudetenland be given to him. After all this Czech refused his orders and asked for France's help.
C) Britain and France Again Choose Appeasement - France and Britain were preparing for war until Mussolini called for a meeting. The Czechs were not invited to the Munchin Conference which was held on September 29,1938. The British Prime Minister thought he would keep peace by giving Hitler his demands. Britain and France said they were okay with Hitler taking Sudetenland and, Hitler promised to respect Czechoslovakia's new borders. Chamberlain told them "I believe it is peace for our time" but, Winston Churchill disagreed with the appeasement. Soon after the meeting Hitler took all of Czechoslovakia. Then Mussolini took Albania and, Hitler demanded return the port of Danzig. They also refused and turned to Britain and France for help. The appeasement had convinced Hitler there wasn't a risk for war.
D) Nazis and Soviets Sign Nonagression Pact - The Soviet Union was asked by Britain and France for help to stop Hitler. Stalin talked with Britain and France but also bargained with Hitler. Fascist Germany and Communist Russia, once bitter enemies, pledged never to attack one another. August 23, 1939 the leader signed a treaty called a nonaggression act. War appeared inevitable as the Axis Power moved unchecked at the end of that decade.