The peripheral nervous system is all of the nerves in the body that aren't part of the Central Nervous system. The function of the peripheral nervous system is to connect the CNS to the rest of the body. An example would be if you touched something hot. The PNS would detect it and send impulses up the CNS eventually reaching the brain which moves your hand away.
The brain is further divided into different lobes the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe, the limbic lobe, and the insinular cortex.
The frontal lobe is associated with short term memory, attention, planning, and motivation.
The temporal lobe is associated with visual memories and language comprehension.
The parietal lobe is associated with language processing.
The occipital lobe is associated with color recognition and motion processing.
The limbic lobe contains parts of every lobe in the cerebral cortex. The limbic lobe is associated with learning motivation, memory, and emotions.
The insinular cortex is the deepest most central part of the brain. Unitil recently many neuroscientists knew barely anything about it. Now scientists are able to associate it with pain receptors, basic emotions, addiction, awareness, motor control, sense of oneself, and social clues.