Independent Assortment By: Makenzie mcguire


  • Nondisjunction: a chromosomal mutation that produces an offspring with an incorrect number of chromosomes
  • Recessive Genes: a gene that can be masked by a dominant gene
  • Dominant Genes: a gene that is more likely to show up in the offspring
  • Somatic Cell: a body cell
  • Germ Cell: a cell containing half the number of chromosomes of a somatic cell and is able to unite with one from the opposite sex to form a new individual; a gamete.

Mitosis vs Meiosis

Mitosis is used for asexual reproduction and meiosis is used during sexual reproduction. Mitosis and meiosis both have the steps of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase. Unlike mitosis meiosis goes through the stages of PMAT twice rather than just one time.

Karyotype, genotype, and phenotype

Karyotype: A karyotype is a picture of a person’s chromosomes. To get this picture, the chromosomes are isolated, stained and examined under the microscope. With this picture chromosomes can be looked at to see if there is a missing or extra piece.

Genotype changing the Phenotype: Genotype is the genetic constitution of an individual organism. Phenotype is the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. The genotype defines the phenotype. The genotype is a part of the DNA so whatever is encoded in the DNA genotype tells the phenotype what it will be.

Chromosomal Mutations

  • Klinefelter's Syndrome: This syndrome is also commonly called XXY syndrome. Klinefelter's syndrome is a chromosomal condition where a male is born with an extra X chromosome. Men with this syndrome have more estrogen so they are more feminine.This is a recessive gene and from germ cells.
  • Down Syndrome: This mutation occurs in the 21st chromosome. Down syndrome occurs when an individual has a full or partial extra copy of a chromosome in the 21st. This syndrome is recessive and from germ cells.
  • Colorblindness: Color blindness is often an inherited disease that affects men more than women. Color blindness usually involves the inability to be able to distinguish between shades of red and green, or blue and yellow. Being able to distinguish between red-green is a sex linked recessive trait and blue-yellow color blindness is a autosomal dominant trait. Color blindness is from somatic cells.
  • Turner's Syndrome: This causes developmental abnormalities and infertility. Caused by a germ cell, turners syndrome is neither a recessive or dominant trait because it is a disease in the chromosomes not a genetic disease. People affected by Turner's syndrome have a single X chromosome, and have a total of 45 chromosomes. Mostly females are affected.

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