Deep Sky Objects and Much More By: Isabel Soler

People

Eintain

  • Bio: Einstein was born in Germany on March 14, 1879. The place of birth was Ulm, Whürttemberg. He died on April 18, 1955 at the age of 76 in Princeton, New Jersey, United States.
  • Einstein then joined Eidgenössische Polytechnische Schule (Swiss Federal Polytechnic School) based in Zürich, Switzerland.

Juicy Fact: His exceptional talent in mathematics and physics grabbed attention but he actually failed in other subjects of the entrance exam. School authorities decided to accept him provided he completed his formal schooling. So, he joined Jost Winteler’s special high school and graduated at the age of 17. At the age of 17 Einstein also renounced his German citizenship to avoid military service. During his schooling with Jost Winteler, he became very close to the family and fell in love with Marie – Winteler’s daughter. He also enrolled in Zürich’s school after renouncing his German citizenship.

Juciy Fact: Einstein married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal after a divorce. In 1921 Einstein received Noble Prize for Physics but he did not win for his Theory of Relativity as it was not completely understood. He was actually awarded the prize for his extraordinary explanation of the photoelectric effect.

Contribution: While he had many theories and different researches, one that he is well known for is his works, one being Special Theory of Relativity (1905), and The Evolution of Physics (1938).

Citation:

Citation: (Baidya, 2014)

References:

Baidya, S. (2014, August 4). 45 interesting albert einstein facts. Retrieved from URL

from: http://factslegend.org/45-interesting-albert-einstein-facts/

Galileo

  • Bio: Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy, on the 15th of February 1564 in Pisa, Italy. He died on the 8th of January 1642.
  • He was a Italian scientist, astronomer, engineer, physicist, mathematician and philosopher and inventor.

Juciy Facts:

He is famous for many reasons; one of his biggest being the developments and improvements that he made to the telescope. Galileo made the first recorded telescopic observations of the phases of the planet Venus in 1610. Galileo discovered Jupiter's four biggest satellites around January 1610.

The moons are named 'Galilean moons' in his honor and they are four of the largest objects in our solar system. The four moons associated with Galilean moons are lo, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. The largest of the Galilean moons is Ganymede. Galileo Galilei was a very important Italian astronomer who greatly influenced the revolution of science during the renaissance period. He invented a telescope which allowed him to view and analyse the solar system.

Contribution: Galileo was a ground breaking astronomer, physicist, mathematician, philosopher and inventor. Among his inventions were telescopes, a compass and a thermometer.

Citation:

Science Kids(July 8, 2016)

References:

Science Kids. (2016) .Retrieved (July 8, 2016)

from: http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/scientists/galileogalilei.html

Famous Astronomers.(2011). Famous Astronomers. Retrieved May 5, 2017

From: http://famousastronomers.org

La Verrier

  • Le Verrier theorized that there was a second asteroid belt in our solar system. He believed the second belt was between the Sun and Mercury. We now know that this second belt does not exist.

Bio: Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier was born in 1811 at Saint-Lô, France. At the age of 26, he was appointed a teacher of astronomy at the Ecole Polytechnic Paris. He died on September 23, 1877.

Juciy Fact: Immediately after his appointment he began an intensive study of the motion of Mercury. He compiled extensive tables detailing the planet's motion, including its unusual characteristic of a varying perihelion. By 1845 Le Verrier had become interested in the motion of the planet Uranus. Uranus did not have the orbit scientists expected it to have based on their mathematical calculations. Le Verrier set out to determine why. Through mathematical calculations, he predicted the presence of another planet beyond Uranus. The gravitational pull of this planet would explain the unusual motion of Uranus. Le Verrier gave his calculations to astronomer Johann Gottried Galle at the Berlin Observatory. Using Le Verrier's calculations, Galle was able to observe the planet within one hour of starting. Le Verrier expected to be declared the sole discoverer of Neptune, but months prior to his calculations being completed John Couch Adams, an English mathematician, had accomplished the same feat. As a consequence, Le Verrier and Adams share the honor as Neptune's discoverers.

Juciy Fact: In 1854, Le Verrier became director of the Observatory of Paris. At the time, this observatory was in decay. Le Verrier reestablished the observatory as a place where good science was taking place. He often used very tough measures at the observatory. As a consequence, a storm of protest led to his removal as director in 1870. He was reinstated as director in 1873. Urbain Le Verrier died in Paris in 1877.

Contribution: The aspect of astronomy with which Leverrier was primarily concerned was celestial mechanics, the mathematical analysis of the planetary motions.

References:

Charles Scibners sons, editors. (2008). Le verrier, urbain jean joseph. Retrieved from Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography

from: http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/science-and-technology/astronomy-biographies/urbain-jean-joseph-leverrier

William Herschel

Bio:

  • He was born in Hanover, Germany
  • He was the first to state that the solar system is moving through space.
  • In 1757 Herschel immigrated to England during the war with France.
  • He died on August 25, 1822 in Slough, Berkshire.

Juicy Fact: In 1766 he became the organist of the Octagon Chapel, Bath and was appointed Director of Public Concerts. Sir Frederick William Herschel, KH, FRS (November 15, 1738 to August 25, 1822) was a German-born British astronomer and composer. He built his own telescope in 1774. In March 1781 he noticed an object he originally thought was a comet or a star.

Juicy Fact: In 1781 he discovered the planet, Uranus. After he met the Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne, he began building his own telescopes. On March 1, 1774 he started his catalogue of the skies by noting Saturn's Rings and the Great Orion Nebula. He began searching for star pairs in order to demonstrate by means of parallax shifts their distance from the Earth. In October 1779 he began a systematic search for binary stars. In 1782 he was appointed "The King's Astronomer." He presented his catalogues to the Royal Society in 1782. In 1802 he published the Catalogue of 500 new Nebulae, nebulous Stars, planetary Nebulae and Cluster of Stars; with remarks on the Construction of the Heavens. His observations led him to theorize that double stars might be binary sidereal systems operating under mutual gravitation attraction. He confirmed this hypothesis in 1803 in his Account of the Changes that haave happened, during the last Twenty-Five Years, in the relative Situation of Double-Stars.

Contribution: He was elected vice president of the newly formed Royal Astronomical Society in 1820 and president the following year.

  • He confirmed over 800 binary star systems.
  • He ultimately built more than 400 telescopes.

References:

William Herschel Facts.( 2005-2017). William Herschel Facts. Retrieved (no date) from Softschools.com

http://www.softschools.com/facts/scientists/william_herschel_facts/2025/

Clyde Tombaugh

Bio: Clyde William Tombaugh was born on near Streator, Ill., on Feb. 4, 1906. Tombaugh passed away at his home in Las Cruces, N.M., on Jan. 17, 1997.

Bio: Clyde William Tombaugh was born on near Streator, Ill., on Feb. 4, 1906. Tombaugh passed away at his home in Las Cruces, N.M., on Jan. 17, 1997.

Juicy Fact: Unimpressed with store-bought telescopes, Tombaugh constructed his first telescope at the age of 20, grinding the mirrors himself. Over the course of his life, he would build more than 30 telescopes.

Contribution: Although most famous for the discovery of the most controversial body in the solar system, Tombaugh also found a comet, hundreds of asteroids, and several galactic star clusters over the course of his career.

References:

Famous Astronomers. (2011). Famous Astronomers. Retrieved (May 5, 2017) from: http://famousastronomers.org

Percival Lowell

Bio: Born: March 13, 1855, Boston, MA Died: November 12, 1916, Flagstaff, AZ

Juicy: Although none of Lowell's theories ultimately panned out, his enthusiasm provided a significant boost to the public imagination when it came to Mars.

Contribution: His search for Planet X led to the discovery of Pluto, and his construction of Lowell Observatory led to a number of significant scientific findings.

References:

Famous Astromer. (2011). Famous Astronomers. Retrieved (May 5, 2017) from http://famousastronomers.org

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2017). Percivel Lowell American Astronomer. Retrieved (May 5, 2017)

from: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Percival-Lowell

Issac Newton

Bio: Born: January 4, 1643, Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, United Kingdom Died: March 20, 1727, Kensington, London, United Kingdom

Juicy: Newton might not have been surprised: In his later life, when asked for an assessment of his achievements, he replied, "I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself now and then in finding a smoother pebble or prettier shell than ordinary, while the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me."

Contribution: English physicist and mathematician Sir Isaac Newton, most famous for his law of gravitation, was instrumental in the scientific revolution of the 17th century.

References:

Famous Astromers. (2011). Famous Astronomers. Retrieved (May 5, 2017) from http://famousastronomers.org

Vera Rubin

Bio: Born: July 23, 1928, Philadelphia, PA Died: December 25, 2016, Princeton, NJ

Juicy: “She went to her room, she cut up paper into a skirt image, and she stuck it on the little person image on the door of the bathroom,” says Bahcall. “She said, ‘There you go; now you have a ladies’ room.’ That’s the type of person Vera is.”

Contribution: Rubin has continued to champion women’s rights to — and rights within — astronomy. She discovered dark matter.

References:

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2017). Vera Rubin American Astronomer. Retrieved (May 5, 2017)

from: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Vera-Rubin

Edwin Hubble

Bio:

Edwin Hubble was born on November 20, 1889 in Marshfield, Missouri. He revolutionized the field of astrophysics. He discovered that there are more galaxies outside of the Milky Way. He died September 28, 1953. In honor of Hubble's work in astrophysics, NASA named its Hubble Space Telescope after Edwin Hubble.

Juicy Fact: He served in World War I before he settled down in the field of astrophysics.

Contribution:

Edwin Hubble's research helped prove that the universe is expanding. He also created a classification system for galaxies.

References:

Famous Astronomers. (2011). Famous. Astronomers. Retrieved (May 5, 2017)

from: http://famousastronomers. org

DSO

Nova

A star which suddenly flares up to many times its original brightness before fading again.

Supernova

A super bright explosion of a star. A supernova can produce the same amount of energy in one second as an entire galaxy.

Open Cluster

A group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud, and are still loosely gravitationally bound to each other.

Globular Cluster

Densely packed collections of ancient stars. They contain hundreds of thousands, and sometimes millions, of stars.

Nebula

A cloud of gas and dust

Galaxy

A group of stars, gas and dust held together by gravity

Quasar

A very distant, immensely bright object.

Black Hole

A region of space around a very small and extremely massive object within which the gravitational field is so strong that not even light can escape

Pulsar

Type of star that gives off a rapidly repeating series of radio waves

Black Dwarf

A theoretical stellar remnant, specifically a white dwarf that has cooled sufficiently that it no longer has significant heat or light.

White Dwarf

White dwarfs are the final remnant of the core collapse death of a star with a starting mass similar to the sun, roughly between 0.5 to 8 solar masses give or take.

Solar System 

Sun

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process.

Solar Flare

Sudden bursts of energy in the form of fire that erupts on the suns surface.

Solar Prominence

A large, bright feature extending outward from the Sun's surface; often link sunspots

Sunspot

Area of gas on the sun's surface which leaves a dark spot

Solar Wind

Create powerful electric currents that result in greenish, red or purple glow in Earth's sky; can also cause magnetic storms

Auroras

An incredible light show caused by solar winds

Solar Eclipse

When our view of one object in the sky is blocked by either another object or the Earth's shadow

Mercury

Mercury is the planet closest to the Sun. It is not, however, very close, since it is 36 million miles, or 58 million kilometres away from the Sun.

Venus

Venus is the brightest planet in the Solar System and can be seen even in daylight.

Mars

The Red Planet is the fourth planet from the sun. In a lot of ways, Mars looks a lot like our home, though instead of blue oceans and green land, Mars is home to an ever present red tint because of its Iron oxide. 

Jupiter

Jupiter is the planets fifth and order from the sun. It has at least 14 moons and it is the largest planet in the solar system.

Saturn

Saturn is the sixth planet in the Solar system and, when seen through a telescope, by far incredible because of the rings around it.

Uranus

The seventh planet from the Sun, it was not known in ancient times, unlike the planets from Mercury and Saturn.

Neptune

  • Neptune is the 8th planet from the Sun. Like Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus, It is composed only of gas. Neptune is a Great ball of hydrogen and helium

Pluto

Pluto orbits beyond the orbit of Neptune. It is much smaller than any of the official planets and now classified as a "dwarf planet"

Comet

A small, frozen mass of dust and gas revolving around the sun

Oort Cloud

The Oort Cloud is an extended Shell of icy objects that exist in the outermost reaches of the solar system. It is named after the astronomer Jane Oort, who first theorized it's existence. 

Solar System

The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called asteroids or minor planets.
A meteor that survives its passage through the earth's atmosphere such that part of it strikes the ground. More than 90 percent of meteorites are of rock, while the remainder consist wholly or partly of iron and nickel.
As the moon waxes (the amount of illuminated surface as seen from Earth is increasing), the lunar phases progress through new moon, crescent moon, first-quarter moon, gibbous moon, and full moon. The moon is then said to wane as it passes through the gibbous moon, third-quarter moon, crescent moon and back to new moon.

Definitions:

Apparent Magnitude- Apparent magnitude of a star is a number that tells how bright that star appears at its great distance from Earth.

Absolute Magnitude- Absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude the star would have if it were placed at a distance of 10 parsecs from the Earth.

Eclipsing Variable Star- A pair of stars revolving about their common centre of mass in an orbit whose plane passes through or very near the Earth

Variable Star- Stars which fluctuate in brightness

Light Year- The distance which a ray of light would travel in one year. This is about 6,000,000,000,000 (6 trillion) miles.

Astronomical Unit- The distance from the Earth to the Sun. Usually written AU.

Event Horizon- Boundary marking the limits of a black hole.

Electromagnetic Spectrum- The electromagnetic spectrum describes all the wavelengths of light. From dark nebulae to exploding stars, it reveals an otherwise invisible universe.

ROYGBIV- An acronym for the colors of the visible light spectrum: Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet

Dark Matter- Roughly 80 percent of the mass of the universe is made up of dark matter. Dark matter does not emit light or energy.

Strange but true...

Reference:

https://www.nasa.gov/images/content/59830main_Saturn_in_Tub.gif

1-Saturn would float if you would put it in water.

2-If you would place a pinhead sized piece of the Sun on the Earth you would die from standing within 145 km (90 miles) from it.

4-Only 5% of the universe is made up of normal matter, 25% is dark matter and 70% is dark energy.

5-Neutron stars are so dense that a teaspoon of them would be equal to the weight of the entire Earth’s population.

6-The Sun is 400 times larger than the Moon but is 400 times further away from Earth making them appear the same size.

7-The star Lucy in the constellation Centaurus is a huge cosmic diamond of 10 billion trillion trillion carats.

8-Seasons last 21 years on Uranus while each pole has 42 years of sunlight followed by 42 years of darkness.

9-Venus,on the other hand, does not have any seasons at all.

10-1 year on Mercury consists of less than 2 days on Mercury.

11-There are as many oxygen atoms in a breath as breaths of air in the atmosphere.

12-Helium is the only substance in the universe that cannot be in solid form.It can’t be cold enough.

13-The coldest place in the universe is on Earth. In Wolfgang Ketterles lab in Massachusetts. 0.000000000001 degrees Kelvin.

14-The pistol star is the most luminous star known 10 million times the brightness of the Sun.

15-Saturn’s moon Titan has liquid oceans of natural gas.

Credits:

Created with images by European Southern Observatory - "A Deep Look into a Dark Sky" • NASA Goddard Photo and Video - "Hubble Images Suggest Rogue Asteroid Smacked Jupiter" • Kevin M. Gill - "Saturn" • NASA Goddard Photo and Video - "Alien aurorae spotted on Uranus by Hubble" • Kevin M. Gill - "Neptune - August 21 1989" • NASA Goddard Photo and Video - "New Horizons Flyby of Pluto" • NASA Goddard Photo and Video - "Bright Comet ISON" • PeterJupke - "meteorite stone hoba"

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