Genetics By: ye & sHELBY

Genetics is the study of heredity.

Heredity is when the parents pass on traits to their offspring, by genes.

All things related to genetics

Gregor Mendel is also known as the "Father of Genetics".

The main GM

Gregor Mendel discovered the study of genetics through his experimentation of the cross breeding of flowers. While looking at pea plants, he was curious to why it had many different colors. So by cross breeding the plants, he could control the outcome of the offspring.

The 2 types of breeding are Monohybrid, breeding for 1 desired trait, and Dihybrid, breeding for 2 desired traits.

In Mendel's Principal of Dominance, he states that even though the dominant traits are being shown instead of the recessive ones, they can still be passed on and possibly be visible in the next generations.

Each gene is composed of two alleles one pair from your father and one pair from your mother. The two alleles are displayed as the same letters, for example: (TT, tt, Tt)

A person's genotype is referred to their genetics and their phenotype is referred to their physical traits they display.

DOMINANT ALLELES OVERRULE RECESSIVE ALLELES.

Only dominant traits are shown in a person's physical appearance. Dominant alleles are capital letters while recessive alleles are lower case letters.

Homozygous genes are two of the same type of allele together. Heterozygous genes are each type of an allele together, involving a lowercase (the recessive trait) and is not physically present.

PUNNET SQUARES ARE USED TO SHOW THE POTENTIAL GENOTYPES AND PHENOTYPES the OFFSPRING CAN RECEIVE.

Incomplete dominance is when the traits blend due to the presence of multiple dominant genes. These two traits share the dominance and as a result, a mixture of these traits are expressed.

Codominance is when both alleles are equal and creates variation in the organisms appearance. In other words, one trait does not want to give up its "throne" to the other so they just share the dominance. Both traits can be shown but they are not mixed.

THE OFFSPRING OF THESE TWO FLOWERS WILL BE: A 25% HOMOZYGOUS DOMINANT, 50% HETEROZYGOUS DOMINANT, AND 25% HOMOZYGOUS RECESSIVE.

Sex chromosomes determine if offspring will be male or female.

Females are represented with XX. Males are represented with XY.

THE EPIGENOME IS A MARKER THAT MAKES IT EASIER TO READ GENES AND DNA.

SEX LINKED TRAITS ARE PASSED THROUGH SEX CHROMOSOMES.

Females can only pass a X chromosome. Males can either pass a X or a Y chromosome. Female offspring is XX and male offspring is XY.

AUTOSOMAL CHROMOSOMES ARE THE CHROMOSOMES THAT ARE NOT SEX CHROMOSOMES.

Blood typing tells you what type of blood a human posses. The 4 types of blood are A, B, AB, and O, but humans can have A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, or O- as their blood type (The Rhesus factor is the positive and negative).

A human can only accept blood types that are similar to theirs for it to be transferred into their body. The wrong blood type can kill the person!

Karyotype shows all the chromosomes a person has. A single human being have a total of 23 chromosomes.

Pedigree charts are used to trace family passed on diseases/genes throughout the generations in a family. Kinda like a family tree, but instead it is used to show the passing of diseases or genes.

The Blue color represents the affected person. Circles are females and Squares are males.
Have a great day. Hope you learned something about genetics!

Credits:

Created with images by karenwarfel - "twins boys babies" • geralt - "tulips red white" • miapowterr - "dad mom love" • Alexas_Fotos - "masks carnival play stone" • Pexels - "bloom blossom flora" • sathyatripodi - "brothers family siblings" • bykst - "geranium wave water" • barbasia. - "simple." • RyanMcGuire - "thank you neon lights neon"

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