The Immune System To keep your insides from feeling like your outsides

Your immune system is what keeps your body healthy. It is a network of cells, tissue, and organs that keep out the pathogens. When the immune system fails to keep the diseases or viruses out, your immune system rushes into action to seek and destroy the tiny little organism.

When their is a foreign object that is harmful to the body, it is known as an antigen. Antigens cause an immune response which tells the white blood cells to start producing antibodies. Antibodies are little proteins that bind to the antigen. When the antibody binds to the antigen, it disables the chemical action in the antigen.

Immunology is a very cool science to study. It is all about how your immune system and how your body can become immune after having a certain disease or virus. When your body is immune to something, it means that your body has learned how to quickly fight off a disease through past experience with the disease.

There are diseases that cause the immune system to attack the healthy cells of the body. Autoimmune diseases do one of two things. It can either slow down the immune system which keeps it from protecting our bodies from dangerous pathogens. Or the autoimmune disease can cause the immune system to increase its activity and destroy the body's own healthy cells.

The Skin

Your skin is like the outside body armor of your immune system. The diseases and foreign objects have to get through the skin first if it wants to get into your body. Your skin has a lot of T cells, many more than in your blood. The T-cells are a kind of white blood cell that helps fight off pathogens. The skin also is a good seal around the body, not many pathogens can get into it, but when they do, all the T-cells do a good job at destroying the pathogen before it can do any damage.

B & T Cells in the Immune System

B and T cells are types of white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes help the immune system by destroying antigens and by helping remember the type of antibodies for each antigen. B cells are mostly formed in bone marrow. Bone marrow is known for making blood but it also makes other things, such as B cells. B cells are matured specifically with an antibody that destroys a certain antigen. So each B cell can only treat a specific type of antigen. B cells create antibodies to destroy unknown antigens. T cells get their name from the thymus glands. An organ in the neck that makes and matures T cells. T cells also destroy dangerous pathogens in the body. Like the B cells, they help the immune system remember which antibody it needs to destroy a certain antigen. Some T cells destroy the body's own cells that have been controlled by viruses.

There is also a special cell that is made when their is a present virus or infection. The macrophage is a big cell that is made to destroy antigens. The macrophage, since it is so big, will engulf the antigen and destroy it.


A lot kids receive vaccines when they are little babies. In the vaccines are a bunch of weakened diseases and viruses. The disease gets into the body and starts to attack the body, but since it is weakened, or sometimes even dead, it hardly does any damage. The immune system is able to find a way to destroy the disease and it remembers the type of antibody it needs. So now when the baby is older and is exposed to the full power of the certain diseases from the vaccine, the immune system will already know how to treat the disease. So through the vaccine, they become immune to certain diseases.

Natural & Acquired Immunity

Natural Immunity is when your body is immune to something without having past experience with it. The natural immunity as to do with your genetics. Acquired Immunity is when your body has become immune to a certain disease through past experience.

Allergic Reactions

Allergic reactions occur when a certain substance gets into your body and your immune system detects it and starts producing antibodies to destroy it even though it's really not harmful, these substances are called allergens. The allergic reactions start to occur right when the body starts to attack the harmless allergens. The cells release something called histamine which causes the blood vessels to expand and they leak fluid into tissue which causes swelling known as a inflammatory response. There are drugs that have been made called antihistamine that stops the work of histamine in the body, which will reduce swelling and other allergy symptoms.

Transplant Rejection Reactions

Transplant rejections occur when transplanted tissue is put into the body but is rejected by the immune system. The immune system attacks and destroys the transplanted tissue or organ. This is very serious, because some people need organ transplants to keep themselves healthy. To prevent transplant rejections, doctors have made a medicine that kind of slows down the immune system in hopes that the immune system will notice the new body part.

Lymph Nodes

Lymph nodes are part of the lymphatic system which you know from before, contain lymphocytes such as B & T cells. The lymph nodes are small structures that store or produce cells that can fight infections or diseases. Lymph nodes also contain lymph, a fluid that carries the disease fighting cells to different parts of the body. When a person's immune system is active fighting a disease or virus, lymph nodes can become very sore.

Did you know that fevers are not an actual illness? Your body's thermostat, the hypothalamus, raises your body's temperature when it is busy fighting off different certain disease. The most common cause of a fever is a cold.
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