Casing: Protects the parts inside of the camera from being damaged, and also for light to not reach the film.
Shutter: Opens and closes between the lens and film when a picture is taken. It controls how long the film is exposed to light.
Lens: A covered piece of glass or plastic. It's job is to redirect the beams of light bouncing of the object so that they come together and form an image.
Film: A light sensitive emulsion
Flash Circuit: This helps get a better picture, it also hold energy for the flash.
Gas Discharge Tube: This produces the flash for the camera, it has xenon gas which is neon light.