Before the government changed in Afghanistan, they had a monarchy.
A monarchy is a form of government with a monarch at the head.
But, the government soon changed in 1973.
Let me tell you about it.
So here's the story: Daoud Khan's Regime (The people's democratic party of Afghanistan.) comes to power, and Khan abolishes the monarchy.
I am quite certain that Mohammed Zahir Shah was an agent of change. He did do some minor things during his presidency and kept neutral positions in international politics.
After Khan overthrew Mohammed Zahir Shah, he called Afghanistan a republic, and he declared that he was the president.
I am certain that Daoud Khan was an agent of change because he successfully overthrew the king and changed the government. If he had never been born, I think that Afghanistan wouldn't be the same.
Look to the right. This is basically how a republic works. A republic is a sovereign state whose ultimate power rests in its citizens entitled to vote.
After Khan's so called "Republic Democracy" was in place, he died in 1978.
In the same year of 1978, Afghanistan proclaims independence from soviet influence because they want their policies to be based on Islamic principles.
This sparked a war with the Soviet Union that lasted 10 years.
Afghanistan won. And they now have the Islamic Republic.
This is the flag for the Islamic Republic of Iran. An Islamic Republic is a republic based on Islamic Laws.
As you can see, Kabul has the highest population because it is the capital and is the center of government. Another very populated location is Kandahar. Kandahar is populated because it is a popular trading location and because it has an international airport. If you look at the top right corner of the map, you can see Wakhan Corridor. There are very little people living there because there are quite a few mountains there.
And to this day, Afghanistan still has an Islamic Republic as far as I know.