Romans are coming
- The patron saint of Spain is a man named Santiago. He was en contra all of the Muslims. He is known for gritante "Matamoros" when entrar en battle. Matar means to kill, and Moros means muslims. He wanted to kill the muslims, many people say that can still hear him yelling this. People believed he was a martyr. He had followers because he lead people to believe that he was doing good works, by getting rid of the "bad."
Toledo City of Tolerance
- In 1492 Moors had dividido into many small kingdoms. They split because of so much battling. Last Moorish king, in Granada, defeated in January of 1492, now Spain is kind of catholic. As he looked back onto his beloved Alhambra palace, he began to cry. His mother: “Weep, my son, like a woman, for what you would not fight for like a man.” No one can say that they will profess the rule of the catholic faith.
- Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castilla were married in 1469 and decidido that they are going to get into power. One characteristic of them is that they are very rich and self appointed. However, the masculinity begins to take over, but the queen did almost everything, she even went into battle. The three things that they stood for are: Uniting Christian kingdoms against the Moors, solidified their power through religion, military success, and Ending Reconquista by defeating Moors in Granada in 1492.
The spanish inquisition
- In 1492 the last Moorish king was defeated, all Muslims remaining in Spain were forced to salir or convert to Christianity. In the year 1502 success was given against the Muslims, it is now decided that all Jews need to leave Spain or convert to Christianity. One of the big questions is "How do we know they’ve converted?" They thought there was only one answer: We interrogate and torture them until they confess—or put them on trial and later execute or burn them!
Pope Sixtus IV and Pope Innocent IV
- Pope Sixtus IV was the reason why the inquisition happened. Pope innocent IV was the reason why all of the torture was allowed without him torture would not have been allowed in the inquisition.
- Carlos I is the son of Juana la Loca and Felipe el Hermoso. He was the holy Roman Emperor. In Austria/Germany Charles V is what he goes by because he changed his name. Under his rule, Spanish Empire grew rapidly. Conquistas of Incas, Aztecs. Gold, silver flooded into Spain from Americas, along with new crops: corn, potatoes, fruits. Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to subsidize the many religions wars he was fighting across Europe. Instead of using his money to help Spain flourish and help the poor people in Spain with all of the money that he was getting in he decided to use it towards war. Spain under Carlos V became one of the staunchest defenders of catholicism as it fought to stop the spread of the protestant reformation across europe. He passed on the legacy to his successor, his son Felipe.
- Felipe II, he had started a family feud, he continued wars against protestants. In 1554, he married Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, however there was no son and the protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England. He said that if he marries her and he becomes King, he wants to have a baby boy. He wanted to have a boy so that when the boy will be catholic because the man is catholic and then that would be uniting catholics. The only problem is they have a daughter. Annexed Portugal, the Dutch declare independence from Spain: starts war involving England. In 1588, Spain’s Invincible Armada was defeated by England.
More Habsburg Kings
- The Bourbons were Competent rulers, but more concerned with life at court. Meaning they were more concerned about life at court then they were about the general public. People thought that once they came into power that spain would get out of all of their problems because they have a little bit of sense on what they are doing, but they didn't care about you if you were not rich or didn't have a job in the court. Efforts to convert spain into a modern state, based on the ideas of enlightenment.
- Rebellion of May 2, 1808, in Madrid begins War of Spanish Independence. Joseph Bonaparte was removed from throne of Spain in 1812. During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gain independence. The constitution of 1812 establishes a parliamentary monarchy. There are now more people to make a decision, but the people are coming from the courts so that means that they will only make decisions that benefit them.
- Fernando VII is the Son of Carlos IV, he returns from exile in France to tule after defeat of Napoleon's troops. Totalitarian rule, he was constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on constitution of 1812. He died in 1833, leaving only a daughter, Isabel to hier. As a result, the country is divided on the issue of a woman ruler. Supporters of Fernando's brother Carlos, face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas”. Isabel reigns from 1833-1868. An short-lived experiment places King Amadeo de Saboya, an italian, on the throne from 1870-1873. The first spanish republic is proclaimed in 1873 it ends in 1874.
Those Crazy Bourbons
- Isabel II rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority. The “Glorious Revolution” removes Isabel II from power in 1868. An short-lived experiment places King Amadeo of Saboya, an Italian, on the throne from 1870-1873.