La Historia de España Abby Delcollo 8 DIAMANTES

Spain The Ancient Pit Stop.

-Spain "The Ancient Pit Stop" is located by the atlantic ocean and the mediterranean sea. It was a great place to live. In Spain you could get food, get healthy, and it was a place to refuel. Spain also had many trade materials some are Silver and Iron. People considered Spain to be "La tierra sagrada."


- The Iberian Peninsula name comes from the Celtilebrios. Galicia still has influences of Celtic culture (bagpipes, language.)

Romans are coming

- The holy roman empire was growing. Caesar and nero decide that rome isn't big enough to conquistar and they go out of Italy and they decide to go west until they can't go west anymore. There is a PROBLEMA el oeste termina eventual. The Romans had a philosophy it was to kill and enslave. Eventually Rome weakens. In 492 the Roman empire collapses.

Roman Leftovers

- The Roman leftovers are Segovia and Merida. Segovia had the aqueduct, and Meridia had the coliseum.

A Different Type of Goth

- The Germanic Visigoths are not very smart, and they are another group of people, and they are never good military speakers. Toman muy bien las ventajas de la debilidad de la gente. At the time the Romans did not have much so they were easily defeated.

please , sir, can I have some moors?

- All the Arabs, Berbers, Syrians from North Africa Invadido the peninsula in 711 A.D. They had ir somewhere because they were being persecuted and treated unfairly. They were being Perseguido for their religion. They all had to go somewhere because they did not want to be persecuted anymore. They could easily defeat Visigoth Kingdoms, conquering nearly all of peninsula. They also had to tomar el control Spain.

La Reconquista

- Is almost continual lucha between the christian kingdoms in north of peninsula and Muslims, who controlled the south. Muslim Spain called “Al-Andalus” in Arabic. Santiago: “Matamoros” he is the Patron saint of Spain.

Closet Religions

- Diciendo that in the public eye I am catholic but inside my doors I am going to practice what I want any religion.

Spain's Patron Saint

- The patron saint of Spain is a man named Santiago. He was en contra all of the Muslims. He is known for gritante "Matamoros" when entrar en battle. Matar means to kill, and Moros means muslims. He wanted to kill the muslims, many people say that can still hear him yelling this. People believed he was a martyr. He had followers because he lead people to believe that he was doing good works, by getting rid of the "bad."

Toledo City of Tolerance

- Jews, Christians, and Muslims. They all had a influence that is still evident today. Arab style architecture (Mudejar), Synagogues, Churches, and cathedrals.

El Cid

- El Cid was considered a hero of la reconquista, because he ayudado Spain become a christian country.


- In 1492 Moors had dividido into many small kingdoms. They split because of so much battling. Last Moorish king, in Granada, defeated in January of 1492, now Spain is kind of catholic. As he looked back onto his beloved Alhambra palace, he began to cry. His mother: “Weep, my son, like a woman, for what you would not fight for like a man.” No one can say that they will profess the rule of the catholic faith.

Reyes catolicos

Fernando of Aragon (left) and Isabel of Castilla (right)

- Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castilla were married in 1469 and decidido that they are going to get into power. One characteristic of them is that they are very rich and self appointed. However, the masculinity begins to take over, but the queen did almost everything, she even went into battle. The three things that they stood for are: Uniting Christian kingdoms against the Moors, solidified their power through religion, military success, and Ending Reconquista by defeating Moors in Granada in 1492.

The spanish inquisition

- a couple of the many torture techniques

- In 1492 the last Moorish king was defeated, all Muslims remaining in Spain were forced to salir or convert to Christianity. In the year 1502 success was given against the Muslims, it is now decided that all Jews need to leave Spain or convert to Christianity. One of the big questions is "How do we know they’ve converted?" They thought there was only one answer: We interrogate and torture them until they confess—or put them on trial and later execute or burn them!

Pope Sixtus IV and Pope Innocent IV

- Pope Sixtus IV was the reason why the inquisition happened. Pope innocent IV was the reason why all of the torture was allowed without him torture would not have been allowed in the inquisition.

Gold Diggers

- Juana, daughter of Fernando and Isabel Married Felipe (el Hermoso) of the power of the Habsburg family. Juana known as “La Loca” (the crazy), because all of the power and money she had drove her insane. Legend has it that when Felipe died, she carried his coffin through the streets of Granada, stopping often to kiss the corpse of the dead king.

- An Gold digger in Spain is someone who marries another person for power.

Carlos I 1516-1556

- Carlos I is the son of Juana la Loca and Felipe el Hermoso. He was the holy Roman Emperor. In Austria/Germany Charles V is what he goes by because he changed his name. Under his rule, Spanish Empire grew rapidly. Conquistas of Incas, Aztecs. Gold, silver flooded into Spain from Americas, along with new crops: corn, potatoes, fruits. Carlos V used the funds that were pouring in from the colonies to subsidize the many religions wars he was fighting across Europe. Instead of using his money to help Spain flourish and help the poor people in Spain with all of the money that he was getting in he decided to use it towards war. Spain under Carlos V became one of the staunchest defenders of catholicism as it fought to stop the spread of the protestant reformation across europe. He passed on the legacy to his successor, his son Felipe.

Felipe II

- Felipe II, he had started a family feud, he continued wars against protestants. In 1554, he married Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alliance. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, however there was no son and the protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England. He said that if he marries her and he becomes King, he wants to have a baby boy. He wanted to have a boy so that when the boy will be catholic because the man is catholic and then that would be uniting catholics. The only problem is they have a daughter. Annexed Portugal, the Dutch declare independence from Spain: starts war involving England. In 1588, Spain’s Invincible Armada was defeated by England.

La Leyenda negra

- La Leyenda negra means black legend. England has the idea to trash Spain. There goal was to get people to stop traveling to Spain. They trashed Spain saying that the King and Queen eat babies (ect.)

El Greco

- El greco means the Greek. He was a Painter from Greece, his real name is Domenikos Theotokopoulos. He traveled to spain in search of work in the decoration of El Escorial. He wanted to paint the palace that the king lives in. He thought that his plan would work out and he would get all the foods and riches, from painting the king's' castle. Felipe (the king at the time) hates his style and refuses to hire him. Basically Domenikos Theotokopoulos gave up his whole life to get turned down from the king. As a result he moved to Toledo and he hits it big he makes money by painting pictures that make fun of Felipe. The most famous piece he has painted was Vista De Toledo. No one could tell that he was actually making fun of the king unless you knew his personal intentions for painting. The message he is trying to say in his paintings is that Felipe only cares about himself and that eventually Spain is going to get destroyed for that reason.

- Vista De Toledo painting

More Habsburg Kings

Felipe II (left), Felipe III (middle), Felipe IV (right)

- Felipe II has a son named Felipe the III. Felipe the III has a son named Felipe IV.

- Felipe IV reigns over one of the richest cultural periods in Spanish history: the Siglo de Oro.

Siglo de oro

- The Siglo de oro is Literature, Drama, Art. La vida es sueño by Pedro Calderon de la Barca. Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina. Character of Don Juan introduced—image of “Latin Lover” created.

End of Habsburgs

- Felipe IV’s son, Carlos II is known as “El Hechizado” (“the Bewitched”). He died in 1700, therefore leaving no heir to ascend to the throne of Spain.


- The war of spanish succession pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule spain. War ends in 1713, with Spain losing Gibraltar to the English. Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon family remains the royal family of Spain today.

The bourbons

- The Bourbons were Competent rulers, but more concerned with life at court. Meaning they were more concerned about life at court then they were about the general public. People thought that once they came into power that spain would get out of all of their problems because they have a little bit of sense on what they are doing, but they didn't care about you if you were not rich or didn't have a job in the court. Efforts to convert spain into a modern state, based on the ideas of enlightenment.

Carlos IV

Carlos IV

- Carlos IV is the grandson of Felipe V (son of Carlos III). He has total incompetence. When he was dealing with Napoleon that leads him to use lots of dynamite.


- Rebellion of May 2, 1808, in Madrid begins War of Spanish Independence. Joseph Bonaparte was removed from throne of Spain in 1812. During the upheaval, most of the colonies in America gain independence. The constitution of 1812 establishes a parliamentary monarchy. There are now more people to make a decision, but the people are coming from the courts so that means that they will only make decisions that benefit them.

Fernando VII

Fernando VII

- Fernando VII is the Son of Carlos IV, he returns from exile in France to tule after defeat of Napoleon's troops. Totalitarian rule, he was constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on constitution of 1812. He died in 1833, leaving only a daughter, Isabel to hier. As a result, the country is divided on the issue of a woman ruler. Supporters of Fernando's brother Carlos, face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas”. Isabel reigns from 1833-1868. An short-lived experiment places King Amadeo de Saboya, an italian, on the throne from 1870-1873. The first spanish republic is proclaimed in 1873 it ends in 1874.

Those Crazy Bourbons

- Isabel II rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opposing her authority. The “Glorious Revolution” removes Isabel II from power in 1868. An short-lived experiment places King Amadeo of Saboya, an Italian, on the throne from 1870-1873.

Alfonso XIII

Alfonso XIII

- Alfonso XIII was unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country, he allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931. The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country. In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try.

Let’s try this again

- The Second Republic of Spain is established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism. They set up a new, progressive constitution, which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from the State, and creates public schools.

Can't we all just get along?

- The new government creates an even deeper political and social divide. The military, the church and the upper classes feel that there are too many changes going on. Socialists and communists factions think there are not enough changes and want more change, and they want it to be done faster.

Civil War

- General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War. Franco’s fascist troops are aided by forces from Germany and Italy, however the Republican forces get very little help. Ones that want more and more change have no one to ask for help. The war ends in 1939, with Franco’s Nationalist forces winning. Franco is now in power.

Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco

- Fascist is a dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. He idealized “the glory” years of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II. Eventually he undoes everything that Spain has worked for. Many people say that this is how he feels, and this is something he would say: "no everything for me and nothing for anybody else." Gender roles, religion, regionalism banned, censorship. Franco's version of regionalism is that wherever Franco lived is the best place to live. Franco's verison of censorship is that he felt that everything had to be approved by him or his Advisors before being put on t.v. or the radio. Franco also did the exile of artists, intellectuals, scientists. He thought that if he kicks everyone out of Spain, who is smart then he will rule a nation of dumb people: and they can not revolt againt him. Basque terrorist group ETA assassinates Franco’s chosen successor. Franco chooses grandson of Alfonso XII to take over. Upon Franco's death in 1975, Juan Carlos L De Bourbon becomes King of Spain


- Instead of continuing Franco’s policies or establishing an absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain. He names Adolfo Suarez as first Prime Minister. Suarez begins the period known as the Transition.

Juan Carlos


- In 1978, Suarez is elected in the first elections held in Spain since 1936. In 80’s Felipe Gonzalez leads Spain out of isolation, joining NATO and the EU. Jose Maria Aznar increases Spain’s influence in the world, with a growing economy and a strong alliance with the USA.

Felipe Gonzalez


- On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000.

A new direction…

- 2 days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain. His first action, as promised, was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. He won re-election in 2008.

Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero


- As añ parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.

A building in Spain


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