African kingdoms By: Ainsley stevens

Ghana-

A Complex society based on trans-Saharan trade with salt and gold had existed in the region since ancient times But the introduction of the camel to western Sahara in the 3rd century A.D. gave way to great changes in the area that became the Ghana Empire. By the time of the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the 7th century the camel had changed the ancient more irregular trade routes into a trade network running from Morocco to the Niger river. The Ghana Empire grew rich from this increased trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt allowing for larger urban centres to develop. It furthermore encouraged territorial expansion to gain control over the different trade-routes.As the empire declined it was finally made a vassal to the rising Mali Empire at some point in the 13th century. When the Gold Coast in 1957 became the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to regain its independence from colonial rule it was renamed in honor of the long gone empire from which the ancestors to the Akan people of modern-day Ghana are thought to have migrated.

Ghana encompasses plains, low hills, rivers, Lake Volta, the world's largest artificial lake, Dodi Island and Bobowasi Island on the south Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana. Ghana can be divided into four different geographical ecoregions; the coastline is mostly a low, sandy shore backed by plains and scrub and intersected by several rivers and streams while the northern part of Ghana features high plains

RELIGON-

christanity,and islam is the largest relgion in Ghana.

PRESENT DAY-

Ghana is officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy,The territory of present-day Ghana has been inhabited for a millennium, with the first permanent state dating back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti.Beginning in the 15th century, numerous European powers contested the area for trading rights, with the British ultimately establishing control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast. On 6 March 1957, it became the first sub-Saharan African nation to become independent of European colonisation

Zambabwe-

Songhai-

It was from one of Mali's former conquests, that the last major empire of the western Sudan emerged. Although the city of Gao had been occupied by a Songhai dynasty prior to being conquered by Mansa Musa's forces in 1325, it was not until much later that the Songhai empire emerged. The empire saw its pre-eminent rise under the military strategist and influential Songhai king, Sonni Ali Ber. It began its rise in 1468 when Sonni Ali conquered much of the weakening Mali empire's territory as well as Timbuktu,and the pivotal trading city of Djenné. The people consisted of mostly fishermen and traders. Following Sonni Ali's death, Muslim factions rebelled causing sonhhai to fall

The Songhai Empire is located in the West African Empire, A.D. 1500. It is also on the Niger River near Gao. Rainforest, Niger River, Sahara Desert, and the grasses of the Savanna are some of the landforms found on the Songhai Empire. Songhai's climate from May to October is hot and wet

RELIGION-

Songhai's main religion is Islam. The Songhai people became Muslim when Muslims from the north came in contact with the Songhai people in the early 1010.

TRADE-

Songhai mostly traded Gold, kola nuts, and slaves were sent north in exchange for cloth, utensils, and salt.

PRESENT DAY-

Today Songhai doesn't exist. Sucks for Songhai:/

Mali-

Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (for which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, astronomy, literature, and art. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa.[15] In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state.

The Empire of Mali was located in Western Africa. It grew up along the Niger River and eventually spread across 1,200 miles from the city of Gao to the Atlantic Ocean. It's northern border was just south of the Sahara Desert

RELIGION-

The government of the Mali Empire was led by the emperor who was called the Mansa. The empire was then divided up into provinces that were each led by a governor called a ferba. The religion of Islam played an important part in the government and many of the government administrators were Muslim scribes.

TRADE-

Ancient Mali Gold Trade Routes. In the ancient empire of Mali, the most important industry for trading was the gold industry. Much gold was traded through the Sahara desert, to the countries on the North African coast. The traders would travel by caravans, on camels

PRESENT DAY-

I thank Wikipedia for helping me understand this info more.

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