PACKETS:

Information on the internet goes from one computer to another in what's known as a packet of information. Many kinds of digital information can be sent with IP packets. For example, if you have a very large image that you want to send or upload to a website, that image may be made up of millions of ones and zeroes, too many to send in one packet. The computer breaks the image into many smaller parts called packets.

ROUTERS:

Each packet has the internet address of where it came from and where it's going. Devices called routers keep the packets running through the network smoothly. If one route is congested, individual packets may travel different routes through the internet, and may arrive at the destination at slightly different times, or even out of order. As part of the internet protocol, every router keeps track of multiple paths for sending packets, and it choses the cheapest path available for each piece of data based on the IP destination for the packet.

RELIABILITY:

Often the best route for the packet isn't the most direct. Having options for paths make the network fault tolerant, meaning the network can keep sending packets even if there's an error making it reliable.

TCP - TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL:

TCP manages the sending and receiving of all data as packets. For example, a song is requested on Spotify. Spotify sends the song broken up into many packets.
When the packets arrive, TCP does a full check and sends back acknowledgements of each packet received. If all packets are there then it's worked and the song plays.
However, if TCP finds some packets are missing, the song may not be as good quality or some parts may be missing, so Spotify resends the missing packets. Once TCP verifies the delivery of the resent packets, the song would start to play.
The TCP and router system is scalable and can work with 8 devices or 8,000,000,000 devices. Because of the principles of fault tolerance and redundancy, the more routers added, the most reliable the internet becomes.
The internet can be grown and scaled, without interrupting service for anyone using it. The internet is made up of hundreds of thousands of networks and billions of computers and devices connected physically.
The internet can be grown and scaled, without interrupting service for anyone using it. The internet is made up of hundreds of thousands of networks and billions of computers and devices connected physically.
These different systems that make up the Internet connect to each other, communicate with each other and work together because of agreed upon standards for how data is sent across the Internet (protocols).

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