Reform Movements Katie Johnson & saloni PatEl Period: 8

The Second Great Awakening

The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival movement during 1830s. It spread religion through preaching. Awakening had a huge effect on American religious history. And so, it was the establishment of many other reform movements. People thought that the movement was possibility of creating a much better world, so they swept along. It was the beginning of the Reform Movements.

Abolitionists

Abolitionism, also called as the anti slave movement was the most disputable reform movement. Abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison, Angelina and Sarah Grimke (Daughters of Southern slave owner), Federick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, and Harriet Tubman helped abolish slavery. Sojourner Truth, and Angelina and Sarah Grimke lectured, gave speeches all over U.S on the evils of slavery. While others like Harriet Tubman, who was a conductor on the Underground Railroad, helped more then 300 selves to freedom.

Women's Rights

Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Stanton thought it was not fair women to not able to do what men could. They hosted a convention called Seneca Falls Convention in New York in which mostly women and some men were invited. They discussed how women should be able to vote, hold office, keep their wages and property after marriage (which went to their husbands). They proposed it by making the Declaration of Sentiments, which was formatted similar to the Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson. This convention was the start of the Women's Right Movement. It was later carried out by Susan B. Anthony and Lucy Stone. When New York passed the law stating that women could keep their earnings and not give it to their husbands, other states like Massachusetts also started making laws on it. After years, women get right to vote, which would not happen til the 1900s.

Temperance Movement

People who opposed alcohol for being legal wanted to reform this and make it illegal. Alcohol lead to huge crimes, families breaking up, and illness that were caused for drinking a lot of alcohol. As the reforms start to rise during 1800s, Temperance Movement was one of them. It started when a public campaign was against the sale of alcohol. Maine was the first state to ban alcohol, and soon other states started to follow this law. This law was later repealed, which is why alcohol is legal today.

Public Education Movement

Very little kids attended school because of the cost in 1800s. Horace Mann, who wanted to change this and make education for kids free or less expensive, took action for this. Mann started giving speeches to the citizens in Massachusetts. He explained them how important it was for the kids to visit school, and how the future of our country depended on them. Later, the citizens of Massachusetts voted to pay taxes to build schools around the country. Mann was well-known after this and many states started liking his ideas. And soon the country was full of schools.

Prison Reform & Care of the Disabled

Dorothea Dix, who was a school teacher used to teach for a Sunday school class at a jail. She witnessed horrible conditions there. She was sucked to see the shortage of food supplies, and the crowded cells. But worst of all, she was amazed how the people who were mentally ill were treated. This really caused her to take actions and report the conditions. Amazingly the lawmakers were in favor of her and decided to create new mental hospitals. Just as this reform, Dix was able to fix the other problems in jail.

Picture 1 shows Women protesting for equal rights. Picture 2 shows the classroom after the Public Education Movement. Picture 3 shows the voting booth with no women in line.

Credits:

Created with images by Gustavo La Rotta Amaya - "Slavery in chains"

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