Unit Four The Nation expands and changes

Mormoms

Definition: church founded by Joseph Smithin 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah

Historical Context: During the 19th century, Mormon converts tended to gather to a central geographic location.

Alamo

Definition: A siege and massacre at a mission in San Antonio in 1836

Historical Context: In December 1835, during Texas’ war for independence from Mexico, a group of Texan volunteer soldiers occupied the Alamo, a former Franciscan mission located near the present-day city of San Antonio.

Prospect

Definition: The possibility of future success

Historical Context: There was prospect for the slaves when Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation.

Cotton gin

Definition: a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers

Historical Context: The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney.

Trade union

Definition: an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer

Historical Context: A trade union helps negotiate with the employer for the employees benefit

Strike

Definition: deliver a sharp blow, as with the hand, fist, or weapon

Historical Context: During the Boston Massacre, British soldiers used their rifles to strike the townspeople with the bullets.

Mass production

Definition: the production of large quantities of a standardized article

Historical Context: Manufacturers sell the mass productions to wholesalers at a discounted price to wholesalers.

YeoMan

Definition: a free man who cultivates his own land

Historical Context: Most yeomans live on farm lands.

FolKtale

Definition: a tale circulated by word of mouth among the common folk

Historical Context: Sometimes the beginning of a folktale in a fragment of narrative is reeled off by a Gypsy on the spur of the moment.

Spiritual

Definition: lacking material body or form or substance

Historical Context: When people are stressed, they try to connect with their spiritual self.

Nativist

Definition: a philosopher who subscribes to nativism

Historical Context: Nativist belief that they are the true "native" Americans.

Immigration

Definition: movement of persons into a place

Historical Context: Immigration allowed the pilgrims to move from Great Britain to North America.

Middle class

Definition: the social class between the lower and upper classes

Historical Context: The middle class are not poor, but don't live very lavish lives.

Tenement

Definition: a run-down apartment house barely meeting minimal standards

Historical Context: Most tenements are in lower class urban areas.

Manifest destiny

Definition: a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable

Historical Context: In the 19th century, manifest destiny was a widely held belief in the United States that its settlers were destined to expand across North America.

Tribute

Definition: payment by one nation for protection by another

Historical Context: Some countries use tributes as a sense of appreciation, or sometimes when somebody is a traitor

Embargo

Definition: a government order imposing a trade barrier

Historical Context: The United States has an embargo on Cuba.

Smuggling

Definition: secretly importing prohibited goods or goods on which duty is due

Historical Context: Smuggling sharp objects the airplane is illegal.

Blockade

Definition: a war measure isolating an area of importance to the enemy

Historical Context: In ancient times they made their blockades with tiny passages so they could attack the enemy one by one.

War hawk

Definition: an advocate of an aggressive policy on foreign relation

Historical Context: Most countries have war hawks in order to determine whether it is worth it to go into war.

Expedition

Definition: an organized group of people undertaking a journey

Historical Context: One of the most famous expeditions in U.S. history is by Lewis and Clark.

Continental divide

Definition: the watershed of a continent

Historical Context: The Continental Divide of the Americas is the principal, and largely mountainous, hydrological divide of the Americas.

Secede

Definition: withdraw from an organization or polity

Historical Context: People secede from schools if the school does not meet their standards.

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