Brazil Patricia Motoko

Introduction

As a country, Brazil is largely rich in its natural resources which include iron, aluminium, gold, copper, manganese, platinum and tin. The climate is very tropical with the Copacabana beach, Iguaçu National Park, Central Amazon Conservation Complex as some of the vital natural resources which boosts Brazil’s tourism. The country is known to be one of the most bio-diverse places in the world due to the large number of reptiles and mammals, 1,000 birds and 3,000 fish species which all reside in Brazil’s rainforests, it is also diverse in terms of its ethnic groups and culture including Europeans, Africans, Portuguese and Americans. The Amazon Basin, with several national parks is at the centre of the countries ecotourism activities (Lew, Hall and Timothy, 2008, 344). However, “The rainforests in Brazil are being cut at a rate of up to four percent per year because of slash and burn agriculture. Pollution of the Amazon River and its tributaries is also a threat to the rainforests.” (geography. about, 2016). Tourists are becoming Increasingly popular towards leisure and event trips following business travel with natural areas being their most desired product. The country was ranked 1st for its natural resources and 23rd for its cultural resources according to several world heritage sites. In terms of transport Brazil has one of the biggest internal air networks in the world, along with air services between all Brazilian cities (World Travel Guide, 2016). Having the highest number of airports makes networks vast and a good way to travel domestically, cars are a regular use of transport however there tends to be a lack of roadside filling stations, other forms of transport are not generally catered for. The concept of ‘mobilities’ and the experience economy is defined as thinking and analysing the process of movement. Ultimately we will focus around the tourism in Brazil and its attributes, considering past events such as the FIFA World Cup.

Aims of the website

  • Obtain knowledge of the destination in regards to tourism and events
  • Insight into the destination with transport, culture, and climate
  • Positive and negative effects in terms of the scenario

Travel Flows

The volumes of international arrivals to Brazil has increased by 4% or more every year since 2010. From 2015 Brazil managed to accumulate a total of 1186 million visitors which was an increase of 52 million the year before. International arrivals are said to increase at a rate of 3.5% to 4.5% worldwide in 2016. The main motives for international travel leads towards leisure purposes, travel for holidays and recreation. 14% of these arrivals were for professional reasons such as business and 27% for others like visiting friends and family, health and religion. The volumes of international arrivals to Brazil has increased by 4% or more every year since 2010. From 2015 Brazil managed to accumulate a total of 1186 million visitors which was an increase of 52 million the year before. International arrivals are said to increase at a rate of 3.5% to 4.5% worldwide in 2016. According to the Tourist Arrivals by UNTWO Tourism Highlights 2016 Edition Brazil and Argentina achieved a substantial number of tourists however there had been a slight fall in numbers from the previous year with 6,430 million visitors in 2014 to 6,306 in 2015 (UNWTO, 2015). Major events such as the Rio de Janeiro carnival had seen nearly 1 million tourists attend, generating US$782 million in revenue for the city.

Transport

Road continues to be the main transport around Brazil. The highway is the largest highway in the world yet does not cater to the needs of many cars, as a result of this construction to rejuvenate and expand the roads just in time for the 2014 FIFA world cup took place. In terms of rail there are 4 main rail gauges in the country 1. Broad gauge 2. Narrow gauge 3. dual gauge and 4. Standard gauge. Air travel has improved and efficient, gaining 115 million passengers flying in and out each year with 300 airports in the country, 21 being international airports. There are close to 50,000 kilometres of waterways with around 15 harbours and seaports along the coast.

Resources, attractions and events

1. Ouro Preto is one of the best preserved towns in brazil and founded in the 17th century. The city holds Portuguese colonial architecture with 18th- and 19th-century churches decorated with gold and the sculptured works of Aleijadinho make Ouro Preto one of the most popular tourist attractions in Brazil.

2. Teatro Amazonas, an opera house in Manaus, was built using furniture from Paris, steel from England and marble from italy. The first ever performance held on January 7, 1897 with the Italian opera La Gioconda. In recent years (1990) The opera house reopened from being closed down due to the rubber trade decline which ultimatelt led to Manaus losings its main source of income. “There wasn’t a single performance in Teatro Amazonas for 90 years until 1990 when it reopened its doors.” (Turopia, 2016)

3. Rio Carnival attracts millions every year, it is held in the streets and squares, bars and clubs.

4. The Amazon River entices a huge number of tourist setting their sights on brazil’s natural attractions. At 6,400 kilometres and being 2nd longest river in the world there is an estimated 10 million living species that live in the amazon rainforest.

5. The famous statue of Christ the Redeemer is located at peak of the Corcovado mountain, standing at 39.6 meters tall

6. The Iguacu Falls is one of the greatest natural places in the world in which the waterfall system falls along the Iguazu River. “The falls can be reached from the cities Foz do Iguaçu in Brazil and Puerto Iguazú in Argentina, as well as from Ciudad del Este in Paraguay. On the Brazilian side, there is a long walkway along the canyon with an extension to the lower base of the Devil’s Throat.” (Turopia, 2016)

Case Study

The FIFA World Cup took place in Brazil from 12 June to 13 July 2014 providing exposure for the country whilst generating large income. With a range of venues located in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Brasilia, Fortaleza, Salvador, Recife, Curitiba, Natal, and Manaus. The event boosted the image of the country whilst potentially prepare to host other events. The first ever world cup game began in 1930 and ever since has received success and expansion. “The first official match between representatives of two nations was between England and Scotland in 1872 at Hamilton Crescent, Partick, Glasgow, finishing in a 0–0 draw.” (Wikipedia). Rio was the gateway for 1,597,153 visitors and registered the highest increase in foreign visitors, with 2,961,911 tickets sold. 60% of tickets purchased by Brazilians and 40% from the rest of the world. “Brazil has won the World Cup a record of five times, the last of which came in 2002.” (abc7chicago, 2015)

Negative Socio-Cultural Impacts from Tourism

Tourism and events essentially creates many economic benefits however there are environmental impacts which poor countries. Firstly the loss of local identity can cause local communities to change their traditions and festivals to conform towards tourism, an example of this is the replacement of indigenous people as “the government throw out these populations by force to make way for tourism development. The indigenous are particularly affected by this event due to lacking formal titles which makes them much more vulnerable to displacement” (qualitycoast, 2014). culture clashes are another huge disadvantage to tourism and events as tourists who are not aware of behaviours and habits of local people in a destination will behave the way they normally would back home which may annoy residents. Tourism also is an unintentional gateway for crime, as rates typically increase as large numbers of tourists with a lot of money will carry valuable items like jewellery increasing the attraction of crime. Child labour in tourism have revealed that an estimated 13-19 million children under the age of 18 years are employed to work in dangerous conditions. It is hugely common in developing countries with activities in restaurants, hotels and the entertainment industry where they are made to do very hard work.

Tourism is not necessarily to blame for sex tourism but a channel that gives offenders access to children. Brazil has recently become one of the main destinations for sex tourism with a third of child prostitution coming from north eastern Brazil. Sex tourism is supported by a variety of people including pimps, brothel owners and tour operators who organise sex tours. Lastly human trafficking for sexual purposes will often have young children who will be trafficked to work in other countries which makes them completely dependent on their exploiter.

Key recommendations

Tourists should be aware that protests may take place regularly without any notice or warning especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brasilia and Belo Horizonte where many have be left injured. Would advise to avoid these protests and pay attention to media. Brazil has also been classified as a risk for the Zika virus which tourist should consider for health reasons. Levels of crime are increasingly high with an underlying threat from terrorism.

Conclusively we establish that the vast amount of natural resources is a key attraction for many tourists and that the variety of cultural events held yearly continue to gain more international visitors than the year before. We learn that Brazil continues to increase its exposure to the world through these events but produces negatives such as the displacement of people, crime, trafficking and child labour. We are aware that transport is limited and doesn’t cater to the many people in the country, but despite the negatives Brazil is still rich in resources, historical attractions and traditions and culture.

Reference List

1. Lew, A., Hall, M.C. and Timothy, D. (2008) World geography of travel and tourism, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann

2. Alves, L. (2015) More Brazilians Opting for Domestic Travel. Available from http://riotimesonline.com/brazil-news/rio-business/more-brazilians-opting-for-domestic-travel/# [accessed 12 November 2016]

3. World Travel Guide (2016) Getting Around in Brazil. Available from http://www.worldtravelguide.net/brazil/getting-around [accessed 16 November 2016]

4. QualityCoast (2014) Social Impacts of Tourism in Brazil. Available from http://qualitycoast.info/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Dossier-Brazil-Social-impacts.pdf [accessed 12 November]

5. UNESCO (2016) Brazil. Available from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/124 [accessed 15 November 2016]

6. UWNTO (2016) Tourism Highlights 2016 Edition. Available from http://fac.ksu.edu.sa/sites/default/files/tourism_highlights_2016-_unwto.pdf [accessed 12 November 2016]

Created By
Patricia Motoko
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Credits:

Created with images by JessicaChristian - "princess horse carousel" • jonrawlinson - "Christ the redeemer" • gabriella szekely - "Carnival" • Vi Neves - "Praia de Carneiros-PE" • leondeniscf - "amazonas sunset amazon river" • oscarwcastillo - "sunset aterdecer river" • nuno_lopes - "sugar loaf pão de açúcar rio de" • Ndecam - "Carnaval 2014 - Rio de Janeiro" • paularps - "Indegenous Jarai tribe girl (Vietnamese border area, Cambodia 2011)" • Pexels - "people crowd sport"

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