B-boying is a form of hip hop dancing which is popularly known as breaking. It consists of top or up rock, footwork, spinning moves (power moves), and freeze. B-boying came from Bronx, NY. The term "B-boy" or "B-boying" was created by Kool Herc who was a DJ spinning at block parties in Bronx back in the days. B-Boys means break boys and they were called so because they dance to the break part of music. Later, by repeating this break part done by DJ, "breakbeats" was born.
Although people tend to pick up only power moves, real b-boys should master the all elements of b-boying. There are controversy between people who emphasize on style and power moves. One puts his emphasis on power moves and their combination and the other shows their style and individuality by footwork and freeze. Rock Steady Crew has been the one who emphasizes styles to show dancer's individual flavor. Even though power moves have a great impact and very energetic, it is hard to put individual flavor into the moves. Also power moves really don't go with beat since it is spinning. It is closer to gymnastic moves rather than dancing.
I want to mention that there are also other b-boys such as Lil Lep from New York City Breakers who should get props by developed b-boying. Also, media stars like Bruce Lee and other Kung Fu film stars and martial artisits had a major influence on b-boying culture. The popularity of Kung Fu films during the mid and late 70s aroudn the world and especially in New York City, has had a great impact on b-boying style.
A large number of martial arts moves were incorporated into b-boying. For example, windmills came from a kung fu which is used to get up from the floor. By repeating getting-up move, windmills was born. B-boying became even more popular in 80s. It was first introduced to out side of New York CIty and the rest of world by a movie "Flashdance" in 1983. (Before the "Flashdance", there were already movies like "Wildstyle" and "Stylewars". But the "Flashdance" was the first major movie which featured b-boying.) Even though it was not b-boying movie, the short scene which featured b-boying and popping on a street had a great impact enough to inspire people to start b-boying all over the world. After the "Flashdance", many breaking movies were made such as "Breakin'", "Breaking'2", and "Beat street." "Beat Street" also had a great impact because it had a scene of battle between Rock Steady Crew and New York City Breakers.