Geography & Cities
Mainland Greece is a peninsula. To the west, there is the Ionian Sea. To the south we have the Mediterranean Sea, and to the east is the Aegean Sea. This is important to the geography of Greece because where there are seas, there is good trading, and good trading means good money. If you look at a map of Ancient Greece, most of the settlements are fairly close to the oceans, so they can trade, fish, and other jobs using water. Greece also has hundreds of little islands that stretch to Asia These islands are an easy way to get to Asia. The act as a guide on travels for trading. Another large part of Greece's geography is the mountains. Although the mountains and rocky soil were not great for farming, farmers found other places to farm. It wasn't that hard, since Greece has a warm climate year-round. Farmers were able to grow wheat, barley, olives, and grapes. The Greeks learned to be independent because they were isolated from the seas and the mountains.
Social Class Divisions
Ancient Greece did not have a social class division. Instead, each city-state was ran by the people. This was called citizenship. All the members of the political community were a apart of Greek citizenship. To be a citizen, you had to be a free native-born men. Some of the rights of a citizen were owning land, they could pass laws, and defend themselves on court. Greece was the first country to develop the idea of citizenship. This is different from all the other ancient places because more than one person could rule. In the other places, only one person had all the power.
The Greeks had many different forms of art. Greek poems and stories are the oldest pieces of writing in the western world. The Greek's earliest stories were called epics. Epics were long poems about heroic deeds. Homer, a famous poet, wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey, the first great epics. Another form of writing is called fables. Fables are short stories that teaches a lesson. Aesop was a famous writer who wrote fables. His stories were often funny, and pointed out human flaws and strengths. Every fable ends with a lesson. A famous fable is The Tortoise and the Hare. Greek drama is another form of art. Dramas are stories told by actors. Dramas include plays, movies, and TV shows. Tragedies and comedies are the last form of art. Tragedies are when a character struggles to overcome difficulties but fails. Comedies are like tragedies but the character succeeds. Art impacted Greece because it was a form of entertainment. The stories were passed down generation to generation. Greek ideas spread to Asia and Africa. This was called the Hellenistic Era. The ideas spread because Alexander the Great and many other people (such as traders) traveled to different places, and brought the ideas with them.
There were many different kinds of government in Ancient Greece. The first type is a direct democracy is a direct democracy. A direct democracy is when every citizen has a say in what happens. Some of the advantages are everyone is a part of the government, and everyone has an impact. Some of the advantages are most ideas are shared, every idea has potential, and everyone is equal. Some of the disadvantages are people could argue, and people could be unhappy about majority rules. An example of a direct democracy is Athens. The next form of government is a representative democracy. A representative democracy is when the people vote for a representative, and the representative goes to the government and represents their people and their thoughts. Advantages are some of the people get heard, and everyone can put their thoughts in. The United States is a form of representative democracy. The third for of government is a oligarchy. An oligarchy is where a few people have power. Advantages of an oligarchy are some people get heard, more ideas, more input to make a decision, an opportunity to discuss ideas, and some but few arguments. Disadvantages include not enough people are heard to make a difference, rulers might not agree, some might not be happy with whats going on, and rulers could be unwise. An example of this government is the Spartan government. The last form of government is a tyranny. A tyranny is when only one person has all the power. Advantages are there are no disputes with decisions they do what the ruler wants, no arguing, and easy decisions. Disadvantages are only one person has a say, fewer ideas, unfair, and not everyone is involved. An example is the Cuban government.
The Greeks explained their religion in stories called myths. The Greeks believed that the gods and goddesses influenced people's lives and events. They also believed that they controlled nature. Because the Greeks sought the god's favor, they did many rituals. They would pray to them, and give them gifts. In return, the gods sent them good fortune. The Greeks also had many festivals to honor them. The festivals were held at Olympia.
The Greek alphabet was based off of the Phoenician alphabet. Το ελληνικό αλφάβητο είχε 24 γράμματα, και κάθε στάθηκε για ένα διαφορετικό ήχο.This alphabet made reading and writing easier than before. The writing was passed down through generations in stories.
Translation: The Greek alphabet was had 24 letters, and each stood for a different sound.