Ancient African Kingdoms Michael hurst

Ghana was populated by Soninke clans that spoke Mande. Nothing is known about Ghana’s early kings or the political system. Documents were first being made about Ghana when Arabic geographers learned how wealthy the Ghana empire was. In the 11th century, the king of Ghana let in Islamic Africans to the capital. Theses muslims and the kingdom had conflict between each other because the king did not want to convert. Eventually, the capital was taken over and was apart of the Mali empire.

Ghana was located in West Africa, south of the Sahara Desert. Ghana is mainly savanna grasslands near the Gambia and NIger rivers. Ghana ruled from 300-110 BCE, and was the first empire in Western Africa. Most of their income come from iron and gold. They used iron to make strong weapons and tools. Then they used gold for trade.

Ghana was populated by Soninke clans that spoke Mande. Nothing is known about Ghana’s early kings or the political system. Documents were first being made about Ghana when Arabic geographers learned how wealthy the Ghana empire was. In the 11th century, the king of Ghana let in Islamic Africans to the capital. Theses muslims and the kingdom had conflict between each other because the king did not want to convert. Eventually, the capital was taken over and was apart of the Mali empire.

The language they speak is French. Mostly flat rolling plains to the north, savanna to the south, rugged hills to the north east. Gold and salt are major exports of Mali along with cotton, cattle, and sheep. Mali as a small community in the kingdom, but eventually Mali took over. The emperor was called a Mansa and the religion Islam also played many important parts. Farmers were one of the highest people in the social hierarchy, because they provided the people with food. After the rule of Mansa Musa, the Mali empire became weak and started losing its borders. Them in the 1500s the Songhai empire rose to power, and eventually took over Mali.

Sundiata was Mali’s son, he was a great leader and very clever. Instead of just trading with the north and the south, he expanded Male and controlled some of the salt and gold mines. But Sundiata’s grandson was Mansa Musa, the fascinated scientists. Mansa Musa focused on education and even wanted t build a university; he even traveled a lot.

In 1960, Mali got independence from France. Since then they have suffered many droughts and 23 years of military dictatorship.

The Songhai empire first came to power under the leadership of Sunni Ali. The Songhai empire was split up into five provinces and were each led under a governor. Slave trade was very important to the Songhai empire, they used slaves to work across the Sahara desert and even sold some to European countries.

Songhai was a fishing village in the Mali empire.Mali wanted Songhai to pay taxes, but Songhai refused. As Mali weakened, Songhai started controlling West Africa. The first king was Sonni Ali, he expanded as quickly as he could. To do so, he sent out warriors on canoes, up and down rivers. People were happy to see them because they wanted some to rule them with a strong army. Songhai had everything: salt, gold, and luxury goods. But the one thing they didn’t have were books

Today most Songhai people live in Mali and Niger. Songhai is a language spoken by 3 million people today. Almost all Songhai people are practicing Muslim.

The original inhabitants of Zimbabwe were pushed out by migrating Bantu tribes. The powerful city-state of Great Zimbabwe formed around 1200 CE. A huge city formed at the center of the Shone empire. Now known as Great Zimbabwe Conflict was stirred up by Arab traders, as rival local leaders sought to take control of the gold and ivory being exchanged for cloth, beads and other luxuries. When the Portuguese arrived in the 1500s, they took sides in these disputes to gain the trade for themselves. The locals resented Portuguese interference and by the turn of the 17th century, these first Europeans had left the Zimbabwean plateau for good.

Most people in zimbabwe are christian mixed with other religions.

Work cited page

Ancient Africa.” Ducksters Educational Site,

Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Ghana.”, Inc., 14 Apr. 2009

“The World Factbook: GHANA.” Central Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 12 Jan. 2017,

“Mali.” Ducksters Educational Site

“Mali Country Profile.” BBC News, BBC, 1 Sept. 2016

“Mali Country Profile.” BBC News, BBC, 1 Sept. 2016

“Ancient Africa.” Ducksters Educational Site,

“Zimbabwe.” Ducksters Educational Site

“Ancient AfricanKingdom of Songhay.” Songhay, Songhai - Ancient Africa for Kid

“Ancient AfricanKingdom of Songhay.” Songhay, Songhai - Ancient Africa for Kid

https://relzim.org/major-religions-zimbabwe/

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